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Bea Guedes (F)
sao paulo, BR
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film maker and multiverse citizen ---------------------------------------------------- There was nowhere to go but everywhere . So keep rolling under the stars - Jack Kerouac
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    Catching up with the future. All major institutions in the world today are grappling to come to terms with the internet. The entertainment...
    Now playing SpaceCollective
    Where forward thinking terrestrials share ideas and information about the state of the species, their planet and the universe, living the lives of science fiction. Introduction
    Featuring Powers of Ten by Charles and Ray Eames, based on an idea by Kees Boeke.

    This is a very special moment in Mankind's History when access to information means freedom . People are gathering all over the world, taking the squares and changing the course of their nations through their manifesto for a better life and a new way of participating in the evolution of the planet in search for a higher global consciousness . This is the greatest Revolution of all . People are changing the world with love , making their statements through art, music, partying to a new consciousness and awareness of the planet , collaborating, sharing, evolving and making their voices heard not through violence or politics but through celebrating the joy of being right here , right now. The overall feeling is not of fear but of love and pride.
    People are celebrating the shift. Revolution meaning Evolution. Again.

    PARTYING TO REVOLUTION is a journey on how we can change the world through love featuring a deep philosophical, antropological, scientific and spiritual research presented on a visual narrative film.

    Our full feature collective documentary will be shot in Berlin, London, Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York and São Paulo between August 2011 and November 2012 in collaboration with filmakers and artists around the world. The Documentary will feature interviews, original and archive footage, animations, narration and fictional visuals.


    Our inspiration - the Visionaires :

    Alan Watts, Buckminster Fuller, Carl Sagan, Terence McKenna, Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Timothy Leary, Jack Kerouac, Charles Baudelaire, Teilhard de Chardin, Aldous Huxley

    The themes for research

    Back to Basic: the understanding of our origins and the search of our true selfs
    - Myths and Legends
    - The Dawn of Men
    - Philosophy of Nature
    - The Oceanic Feeling - the eternal infancy
    - Being God
    - Work as Play - Sense of Nonsense

    A Brief History of the Parties: our most ancient ways of celebration
    - Hinduism and Drama - the big universal play
    - Carnival - the flesh festival

    Party as a ritual: the necessity of understanding time
    - Pagan and Sacred
    - Unpreachable Religion
    - The key is in the Process

    Beat Transcendence: music as a form of breaking on thru to the other side.
    - N’synch with the universal metronome
    - Electronic music and the Art Meditation
    - Body as an instrument

    The Fuel: psychedelic renaissance
    - Internet : an innate human desire for unfettered access to information
    - Connection to the collective consciousness
    - Neo-Xamans: MC’s for the liberation of the mind-body and a manifestation of the interconnectedness of all things
    - Consciosness Expansion: seeing thru the game/ Scape the Matrix

    - Pleasure in trance
    - Sex Evolution
    - Post free-sex/post fear-sex
    - Neo Hedonism
    - Sex on the 5th Dimension

    Culture of Counter- Culture
    - Culture is your Operating System
    - To change the world change your world
    - Take the Squares: the raise of popular movements around the world

    Numbers and the New World Order
    - The Middle Man’s Death: new forms of direct work and exchange
    - Swarm and Crowd Economies
    - The Statistics
    - Marketing Weapons

    Time to Share
    - The Intuitive desire to share
    - Robots and altruism
    - Human Potential Unleashed: the end of Patents and the raise of creative commons
    - Singularity: the technological big bang
    - Quantum Computers

    The truth is Leaking :
    - Wikileaks
    - Digital Ativism

    The Shift
    - From Biosphere to Noosphere
    - Towards a Higher GLobal Consciousness

    The project will be funded basically from crowd fundings and donations.
    To be released in December 2012 worldwide.

    Directed by Bea Guedes and Felipe Dall"Anese

    Our website


    Anyone willing to colaborate ....join us ∆

    Tue, Aug 2, 2011  Permanent link

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    Synapses (1)
    Might the repeated laboratory demonstration of purportedly non-local macro-level phenomena - including telepathy, remote-viewing, and precognition be understood as enabled by fundamental universal dynamics such as quantum entanglement or dark energy? Recently, six European and North American scholars gathered to investigate these questions. This is a report of their progress, and of future anticipated directions. Central concepts include the nature of space-time (and its possible extensions and hierarchizations), the extreme physics within quasars, the storage and retrieval of information at quantum levels, Cremona and Fourier transformations, the occurrence of holograms in nature and their function in information processing, and the fundamental nature of electromagnetism and gravity.

    Here's an amazing article from
    Journal of Cosmology, 2011, Vol 14., 2

    Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures

    Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures
    Paul Bernstein, Ph.D1, Rudolph Schild, Ph.D2, Metod Saniga, RNDr3,
    Petr Pracna RNDr4, Luboš Neslušan RNDr5 & Kala Perkins, MSci6
    1Institute for the Study of Extraordinary Experiences, France and USA
    2Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory, USA
    3Academy of Sciences Astronomy Institute, Slovakia
    4Heyrovsky Physical Chemistry Institute, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
    5Academy of Sciences Astronomy Institute, Slovakia
    6Loyola Marymount University, USA

    1. Introduction

    Throughout the history of our civilization individuals have reported psychological phenomena that have defied understanding in terms of the dominant theory of our Newtonian universe. These experiences have been variously described using terms such as mysticism, magic, and spiritualism, all of which refer to an aspect of reality from which mainstream science distances itself. More recently some of these same so-called "psychic phenomena" have been categorized by terms such as "telepathy", "remote viewing" and "precognition and presentiment":

    a. 'telepathy' - when one person's mind becomes aware of information that is purposefully being concentrated on within another person's mind at the same moment, while the two persons are separated into different rooms or by even greater distances.
    b. 'remote viewing' - when one person's mind obtains significant amounts of accurate information about a location previously unknown to him or her, that also is too distant for the perceiver to see with their eyes, and furthermore is blocked from their eyes by many barriers including walls, buildings, mountains, etc.

    c. 'precognition and presentiment' - when one person's mind (cognition) or body (sentiment; feeling) registers information accurately about an event before that event has taken place ('non-locality' across time).

    Decades of direct experimentation on such phenomena through numerous controlled, laboratory trials seem to have confirmed the existence of some type of 'non-local' relationship across significant perceptual barriers or distances, and even across time (Bernstein 2005; Radin 1997).

    Specifically, to study telepathy scientifically Duke University psychologist Prof. Joseph Rhine and his colleagues in the 1920s and 1930s conducted nearly one million laboratory trials during which a person would stare at 1 of 5 possible images, intending it to be 'communicated to' another person in a different room, while the second person would note down the image that appeared in his mind at that moment. Over 80% of those experiments produced statistically significant results, in which the image identified by the 'recipient' matched the image being stared at by the sender at frequencies greater than mere chance or coincidence (Rhine 1966). Similarly, also to study telepathy, in the 1980s and 1990s 422 separated individuals were tested in American and British laboratories, in experiments that instructed a person in one room to concentrate on a person she could see through a closed-circuit television screen who was sitting in another room – while the second person could never see or hear the first person. Precisely at the moments when the 'senders' were concentrating on the 'target-persons' seen on the closed-circuit TV, those target persons' physiology reacted, as measured by lie-detector-type electrodes attached to their skin, with an odds against chance of 1850 to 1 (Schlitz and Braude 1997). By comparison, the effect-size for new medicines to be officially declared effective in the United States is only one-eighth as great as the effect-size of these laboratory observations of telepathy (Radin 1997, p.154-155).

    To scientifically test remote-viewing, the US Central Intelligence Agency hired the Stanford Research Institute in 1973, and during the next 15 years over 9700 experimental trials were conducted. The tested individuals correctly described distant locations previously unknown to them (assigned at random by the experimenters) with an accuracy of odds against chance at 100 billion to 1 (Puthoff 1996; May 1988).

    Accurate awareness of the future ('presentiment' or 'precognition') - a non-locality of time - has been tested in the laboratory by Dutch professors Biermann and Scholte, and by American physicist Dean Radin. In their experiments, persons watch a computer screen on which is displayed a random series of photographs mixed from two distinct categories: either gentle scenes such as children playing or beautiful nature, or emotionally arousing photos showing wounded bodies or erotic scenes. The viewing persons' physiology is monitored, sometimes by lie-detector type electrodes on their skin and at other times by magnetic-resonance imaging to track their brain activity. Consistently, the viewers' bodies showed distinct reactions 4 seconds before the computers displayed the photos: their body and brain physiology stayed calm before a gentle photo was displayed, but showed excitation before an emotionally-arousing photo was displayed (Biermann & Radin 1997; Biermann & Scholte 2002). Likewise, 54 years of laboratory experiments assembled by Princeton researchers Charles Honorton and Diane Ferrari reporting on more than 50,000 individuals revealed that some persons can accurately predict an image or number before it is selected by a computer or person, to a degree significantly greater than chance (Honorton and Ferrari 1989).

    Seeking explanations for such instances of non-local information coordination, some scientists propose the possibility that additional dimensions might underlie the complexities of our Universe. But string theories that have proposed other dimensions in detail seem so far not to explain the nature of these phenomena. On the other hand, the following three sets of published hypotheses by physical scientists may offer us useful starting points on a search for an appropriate theory.

    2. Regarding "Telepathy" or "Distant Intention"

    Stanford University Materials Engineering Professor William Tiller has suggested that a person's mind or body could be affected by the thoughts of another person far away through the following mechanisms (Tiller 1999, 2004):

    a. Accepting Maxwell's original equations' inclusion of terms describing magnetic monopoles and the flow of such monopoles as a magnetic current taking place in at least some portion of space-time (Harmuth 1986; Barrett 1988; Seiberg & Witten 1994), Tiller proposes that human minds can, through concentration and meditation, move into a state of coherence greater than U(1) and approaching SU(2) gauge symmetry in which they can impress upon such magnetic currents the information content of their mental images. These information modulated magnetic currents then can radiate outwards at speeds faster than light (up to c2) , and can be sensed – and their content can be read – by other human minds.

    b. Tiller envisions these magnetic currents as traveling in a particular region of space-time which includes the quantum vacuum (into which particles have empirically been observed to disappear and from which they have been observed to emerge).

    c. And Tiller cites the laboratory measurements of humans radiating high electrostatic charge at will (Green 1991) as indicative of the possibility of such a 'broadcasting' telepathic mechanism.

    3. Regarding "Remote Viewing" or "Clairvoyance"

    To explain how a person might accurately perceive items and places hundreds of kilometers away, the team of Dr. Edgar Mitchell (Apollo 14 astronaut), computer scientist Peter Marcer, mathematical physicist Walter Schempp, and engineer Robert Staretz suggests the following (Mitchell 2000; Marcer & Mitchell 2001; Marcer 2004; Marcer & Schempp 1997 & 1998; Mitchell & Staretz, in press):

    a. All objects in the Universe contain information at the quantum level regarding their current as well as their past states (their "event histories"), because waves impinging upon each object are partly absorbed, partly reflected, and partly de-flected, thus conveying outwards detailed indications about the structure and character of that object (much as macro-level radar and sonar operate, including "nature's own sonar" evolved by bats, dolphins, and whales).

    b. Such specific alterations in the amplitude – and especially in the phase - of quantum-level waves returning from an object are already used routinely nowadays to extract detailed information from human tissues, through devices the public knows as "magnetic resonance imagers" (MRIs) (Schempp 1998 & Schempp 1992).

    c. Mitchell's team proposes that the human mind can similarly compose meaningful images of even far-away objects by focusing its attention toward those distant locales, because when we "attend to" a specific object or location, we are actually – they propose – sending outwards a quantum wave which establishes a standing-wave interference pattern with quantum waves emitted by the distant object or location. Mitchell et al. call this the establishment of a "phase-conjugate adaptive resonance" with the object. And they cite as possible indications of such outward-going mental waves the telekinetic laboratory demonstrations of Schmidt, Jahn and Dunne (Schmidt 1970; Jahn & Dunne 1987; Princeton Engineering Anomalies 2007).

    d. So long as that vibratory resonance is maintained, they argue, the individual's neural structures can apprehend holographic information about distant objects available through quantum entanglement. And this holographic information is converted by the brain through the known, neurological Discrete Fast Fourier Transform process (De Valois 1990; Pribram 1991 & Pribram 2004), into visual imagery and other conscious sensations.

    4. Regarding "Precognition" or "Presentiment"

    To explain how a person might accurately know an event before it takes place (without having prior information about the event) that is, how someone might experience temporal non-locality, physicists Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher and Russell Targ have offered the following (Rauscher & Targ 2001):

    a. Extending relativity theory's Einstein-Minkowski 4-dimensional space-time into eight dimensions, they conceive of the four additional dimensions as counterparts, being three additional space dimensions and one additional time dimension.

    b. Mathematically, the four new dimensions are designated by multiplying the original dimensions (x, y, z and t) by the square root of -1 (conventionally symbolized as the coefficient i).

    c. This has the consequence that between any two points in the 8-dimensional universe there is always a path that has zero units of separation. (In near-layman's language, non-locality is thereby demonstrated to be true of time, not just of space.) Thus any two points in time can become adjacent; for instance, something that will happen in the future we can be aware of now (as the laboratory experiments on presentiment and precognition seem to confront us with [Biermann & Radin 1997; Biermann & Scholte 2002; Honorton & Ferrari 1989]).

    d. Rauscher and Targ's eight-dimensional space-time metric does not violate any of the equations of Maxwell, Einstein, or Schrodinger. The "transactional" interpretation of quantum mechanics by John Cramer (Cramer 1986; Price 1996) might even require the kind of attention to connections between the 'future' and the present which Rauscher and Targ have explicated. Likewise, Polish theoretical physicist Bialynicki-Birula insists:

    "The very structure of all quantum theories suggests…that two copies of spacetime, rather than one, are the proper arena for all quantum processes. … Every set of equations and formulae in quantum theory, from which all the transition amplitudes are determined, may always be written in two equivalent forms, differing by complex conjugation. We obtain one set from the other by reversing the sign of the imaginary unit i." (Bialynicki-Birula 1986).

    So for physics' own needs, not just in response to the data on human precognition, there might be advantages to adopting 8-dimensional complex space-time into fundamental theory.
    5. Two Portions of Space-Time?

    Despite differences among the foregoing three sets of hypotheses, symposium participant Schild suggested that all three sets might reflect valid, though distinct, parts of the Universe's larger reality:

    5.1. Specifically, William Tiller's "Reciprocal sub-space" (where magnetic currents might travel faster than the speed of light) could perhaps logically be well-described by taking the reciprocal of each of the conventional four dimensions, much as Rauscher and Targ have proposed for explaining precognition. And because the reciprocal of time t is 1/t, which in common physics we recognize as Frequency, Schild renames Tiller's "reciprocal subspace" as "Frequency sub-spacetime".

    a. More fully, Schild represents conventional spacetime (which Tiller called "Direct" subspace) and Frequency sub-spacetime via the following mathematical expressions:

    Conventional (or Direct) spacetime:

    The line element describing any infinitesimal interval in conventional space-time has the minus sign before the spatial component, requiring all real solutions to be "time-like".

    Frequency (or Reciprocal) sub-spacetime:

    Here it is not yet clear if the algebraic sign should be positive, which creates solutions that can be any arbitrary form. Or should the sign possibly be negative, creating propagating waves for time-like solutions? Because he will be looking for solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations, and because non-propagating solutions will probably be needed to describe quantum wave-forms, Schild tentatively prefers the plus sign.

    As these show, Schild emphasizes that Frequency sub-spacetime "is very restricted", i.e., confined to the counterparts of conventional spacetime's x, y, z and t dimensions. Note, however, that such a formulation does not require a further multitude of dimensions beyond the basic Einstein 4; instead it is similar to the Section 4 set of "imaginary" solutions.

    b. Further, Schild asks – along with symposium participants Pracna and Bernstein – to what extent events within Frequency sub-spacetime might additionally be well-described by applying the projective algebraic-geometry Cremona transformation discoveries of symposium host Metod Saniga (Saniga 2000, 2002, 2004). Those transformations convert a point in conventional 3D-space into a line, and convert one moment in our conventional time dimension into a conic (parabola, hyperbola, or ellipse, etc) (Saniga 2001). In such "projective space", human experiences can be tracked and differentiated as intersections across those lines and conics, and as meaningful separations from those lines and conics (Saniga 2005).

    c. This brought Bernstein to consider whether the transform mentioned by both Mitchell's team and Tiller - namely, the discrete fast Fourier transform that has been shown to play a concrete role in both the human brain's storage of perceived experiences (De Valois 1990; Pribram 1991 & Pribram 2004) and in the hologram's storage of quantum-level information (Mitchell & Staretz, in press) -might also describe the transitions to each other between conventional spacetime and Frequency sub-spacetime, through a complete set of Maxwell's equations. One is strongly led to this question because the transformation accomplished by the Fourier algorithm is exactly a conversion of ordinary spacetime's events into frequency data.

    5.2 This brought the Symposium's members – at the invitation of physical-chemist Pracna – to consider what kind of BOUNDARY might exist between conventional spacetime and Frequency sub-spacetime, and to ask "What is the nature of that boundary?" and "Can we specify its behavior?"
    a. One clue might be from Tiller's implication that it is across the sub-spacetime boundary that sub-atomic particles have been observed to 'disappear' into the 'quantum vacuum' (of which Tiller proposes Frequency ("reciprocal") sub-spacetime to be "the coarsest layer"). Perhaps this "disappearance" – to our instruments – occurs when particles' wave nature comes to predominate over their particle-nature? And vice-versa, when particles suddenly appear out of the vacuum, is it perhaps that their wave-nature (which Tiller says predominates in frequency-subspacetime) is becoming overpowered by their particle nature, and therefore we in conventional spacetime can suddenly perceive them? Is the quantum vacuum thus one empirical indication of the actual existence of Frequency sub-spacetime?

    b. To what extent does the boundary behave like a 'membrane'?

    c. Pracna put forth the idea of the relation between conventional spacetime and Frequency spacetime being encoded in the Cremona transformation (CrT). In this context the question emerges, "What is the relation between the CrT and the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT)?"

    d. Pracna further asked Symposium attendees to consider:

    i. Whether motion (velocity) might have its origin in an interplay between the conventional and Frequency spacetimes.
    ii. A similar question could be asked for the velocity-acceleration relation.

    iii. And might inertial mass have its origin in Frequency spacetime rather than in conventional spacetime?

    e. Similarly, one asks whether the impedance observed at the boundary of the vacuum might be occurring because indeed there is a Frequency spacetime there which, as Tiller proposes, already contains a predominance of magnetic events, and those need to be 'pushed' or curved in order to accept any large electromagnetic input from conventional spacetime?

    5.3 Further, can we say anything about the SHAPE of Frequency spacetime?

    a. Initially, we were discussing it as if phenomena which first occurred in conventional spacetime would perhaps have to approach a fixed boundary, and then cross over that, in order to get into frequency spacetime:

    Figure 1. A schematic representation of a boundary crossing, between conventional 4-D spacetime and frequency spacetime.
    b. Subsequently, Pracna introduced a diagram which places conventional spacetime within a 'larger' field of Frequency spacetime which also expresses an implication that Frequency spacetime might be the more fundamental, and even in some sense the "pre-existing" or "sourcing" ground of, our conventional spacetime:

    Figure 2. A schematic representation of conventional 4-D spacetime embedded within frequency spacetime.
    This idea was related to the concept of open systems, in which the arrow of time emerges in irreversible processes along with a decrease of entropy, embedded in a larger closed system in which total entropy increases.
    c. In subsequent discussions this concept was further refined to the Frequency spacetime existing as 'parallel' to conventional spacetime, the two being mutually interconnected by the discrete Fourier transform or by the Cremona transformation:

    i. As Schild stated when he considers the historical development of our Universe: "the wave function gave rise to mass".

    ii. Similarly, seminar participant Neslušan concludes from his elaboration of the Maxwell wave equations that, "Mathematically unifying the fundamental interactions of the Universe seems possible if we assume that at its deepest level the universe consists of elementary sources that generate waves."

    iii. One is moved then to ask if creation/the Big Bang was itself perhaps a migration from Frequency spacetime (the "quantum vacuum") into conventional spacetime (the "Einsteinian physical universe") by vibrations (what Neslušan calls 'wavings') looping onto themselves, and thereby behaving as 'particles' (aptly named by Eddington as 'wavicles') which therefore retain wave properties in the by now well-known "wave-particle duality" so central to quantum physics' observations of matter at its most microcosmic level.

    d. Recalling certain human experiences during which validated data were obtained from departed persons present in a seemingly nearby but not visible realm (Beischel 2007), Bernstein then inquired if conventional and frequency spacetimes might actually interleave one other, like the fingers of two hands, rather than one spacetime being simply surrounded by the other as in Fig. 2.
    e. Schild agreed with such an "omni-presence" of frequency spacetime, but he strengthened the reasoning underlying such a model by recalling to us the postulate that had initially moved the Symposium into this exploration of two spacetimes; namely, that conventional and frequency spacetimes participate in a common set of eight dimensions. In Schild's words:

    "What's necessary is to grasp the fact that every point in our conventional (x,y,z,t) spacetime has a superposition of four more dimensions in which quanta of something else (information) exist at all times."

    Although picturing 8 dimensions on a piece of flat paper requires compromises, an illustration of one point with its 8 dimensions is offered below.

    Figure 3. An illustration to show the x,y,z,t dimensions and the four accompanying frequency spacetime dimensions.
    The solid-headed arrows represent the 4 conventional x,y,z and t dimensions, while the white-headed arrows represent the corresponding dimensions vx vy vz and vt in frequency spacetime. Thus, although there very likely may be a functional boundary for certain discrete events as their preponderance shifts from x,y,z, t into vx vy vz and vt , it could also be correct to say that the four dimensions representing Frequency spacetime are co-located with each point in conventional spacetime.
    f. Pracna cautions that there may not be such a simple one-to-one correspondence of origin points in the two spacetimes as shown in Fig. 3. So he urges us to consider the revised diagram presented in Fig. 4.

    Figure 4. Illustration of conventional and frequency spacetimes, permitting a possibly different nature of the time dimensions from the spatial dimensions, and emphasizing a transformative operation between the two spacetimes.
    5.4 Exploring the Internal Nature of Frequency spacetime:

    a. Tiller's writings emphasize that this other spacetime region is characterized much more by magnetic forces, and much less by electric events, than is conventional spacetime. He therefore offers the label "magneto-electrism" for that region's main force, to contrast with conventional spacetime's electro-magnetism, although he emphasizes that these two forces remain closely related to each other.

    Likewise, Tiller suggests that the wave-particle duality observed in conventional spacetime is probably inverted in Frequency spacetime, in that wave-nature is much more present in that alternate spacetime than is particle-nature.

    b. Schild proposes that waves in Frequency spacetime might be quadrupole, rather than dipole as they are presumed to be in conventional spacetime.

    He also suggests that "dark energy" might be characteristic of Frequency spacetime, and that such energy might be increasing over time due to the growing number of living organisms in the Universe. He further notes that empirical observations already made of dark energy traveling faster than the speed of light (Salart 2008) accord with Tiller's view of Frequency space-time allowing for magnetic currents to travel at speeds up to c2.

    c. Pracna proposes that time in conventional spacetime only emerges (i.e., can be measured, and can be used to relate accelerations to forces) because of the existence of bound systems, and that time might not exist as an independent fundamental property. It is the frequency (in other words, the periods) of internal motions (vibrations) of constituents in a bound system that defines the unit of time relevant for that system, and for that system's interactions with other bodies (again considered as bound systems) in conventional spacetime. Timescales shorter than the periods of internal motions of the bound system are meaningless to it, unless the constituents of the bound system have themselves an internal structure in which there are motions having even shorter periods (higher frequencies).

    Each such bound system represents a special level of hierarchy in which certain physical properties emerge. For example, specific heat or conductivity are not properties of individual atoms, but only of atoms bound into a crystal lattice.

    From this also follows the question, "What is the counterpart of such hierarchy in Frequency spacetime — not only in its 'frequency' (time) dimension but also in its 'spatial' dimensions?" Together with that, we may ask whether a fundamental property like inertial mass might not emerge at a deeper level of hierarchy, or in some so-far-unconceived hierarchy within Frequency spacetime.

    d. This led Bernstein to suggest that such a possibility for time differences between conventional and frequency spacetimes might make possible the >c velocities of magnetic currents within Frequency spacetime that Tiller has derived.

    e. Pracna notes, additionally, that rotational degrees-of-freedom of bound systems like molecules and their symmetry are qualitatively different from vibrational degrees-of-freedom and symmetry. Should rotational behavior demand our special attention here in light of Schild's observation of the centrality of spirals or coils as significant forms of energy propagation in living ("sentient") – and sometimes even crystalline – systems?

    f. Neslušan proposes that at its most fundamental level, our Universe might be composed of certain 'waving' elements, which give rise to the waves and particles we observe in conventional spacetime once their amplitudes are at a sufficient level, but which are not always apparent to us because as they continually oscillate they also participate in Frequency spacetime. To describe them mathematically seems to require both the real and imaginary components of complex numbers.

    6. Information Storage And Retrieval

    In order to account for non-local perceptions - "remote viewing" accomplishments such as those relied upon by Soviet and American military 'psychic spy' programs (Puthoff 1996; May 1988) - Dr. Edgar Mitchell and his colleagues have published hypotheses (mentioned above in Section 3) regarding quantum-level storage and the wide accessibility of holographically-formatted information (Mitchell 2000; Marcer & Mitchell 2001; Marcer 2004; Marcer & Schempp 1997 & 1998; Mitchell & Staretz, in press).

    Specifically, Mitchell and his colleagues hypothesize that all objects in our Universe retain evidence of each event that has occurred to them, recorded chiefly in their particle spin numbers and polarities. They further propose that this information is stored in a holographic form; that is, numerical values referring to the frequency, magnitude, phase, and orientation of the fringes of the wave-interference pattern which is formed when a coherent wave encounters the object and is partly absorbed, reflected and deflected by the object.

    Being holographic, that "event history" is located partly everywhere in the Universe as standing waves, and so can be accessed by an appropriately-tuned "phase conjugate adaptive resonance" established by outgoing coherent waves produced by the human mind when it "attends to" or "focuses its attention towards" a particular object.

    Mitchell and Staretz further note that quantum mechanics' original equations included terms which described such phase-modulated wave-conveyed information. But because those terms could increase towards infinity, quantum scientists eventually discarded them, agreeing to arbitrarily subtract infinity from infinity and to call that subtraction 're-normalization' of the equations. Mitchell and Staretz observe that although re-normalization does not cause major inaccuracies in QM equations for total energy , it does eliminate attention to the phase-variation of waves which would account for their enormous information carrying capability. Physics Nobel laureate Paul Dirac also critiqued renormalization with these words:

    "Neglecting infinities … in an arbitrary way is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it is small —- not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it." (Kragh 1990).

    Schild offers additional support to the potentially countably infinite capacity of our Universe to store such "quantum holograms", by turning our attention to the celestial objects often called "black holes": As is well-known, these are not actually empty "holes" but rather are super-dense, extremely-massive, collapsed, evolved stars and galaxy-center quasars. Because of their mass, their gravity is so great that Einsteinian-predicted time dilation and red-shift occur, to an extreme degree, making them behave from our perspective on Earth as, in Schild and Leiter's terms, "eternally collapsing objects" (Schild & Leiter 2010).

    And because of that relativistically-continuous contraction and continuous acquisition of more mass, they can serve as "Nature's hard-drives", holding copies of the quantum holograms generated by each new moment of human experience, as well as by each new event which occurs to non-living objects.

    Reinforcing the centrality of information for governing crucial processes that occur at the quantum and molecular levels, physical-chemist Pracna detailed to Symposium members the issues of genetic information storage in DNA, and its retrieval in the process of protein synthesis. He noted that the degeneracy of the genetic code, formally expressed by the language of group theory, closely follows the general symmetry of the standard model of elementary particles (Hornos 1993). Pracna points to the dynamics of proteins in living bodies as an example of extreme coherence occurring in objects which are 'macroscopic' with respect to objects at the quantum scale.

    Neslušan focused intensively on a very fundamental level of both quantum and cosmic dynamics, exploring the relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces. His proposed model suggests important consequences for the behavior of objects within and beyond the generalized Schwarzschild radius, which implies an explanation for the shell-structure of atoms.

    His treatment of Maxwell's and QM equations also suggests one possible origin for inertial force.

    7. Some Additional Issues Opened For Future Investigation:

    i. Might developments in projective, finite-ring, and other geometries be better able to express some key regularities concerning the phenomena examined during this Symposium than does Integral Calculus?
    ii. Does perturbation of the quantum hologram occur? ( e.g., does the sharpness of its content deteriorate?).

    iii. What is the attribute of mass that causes mass to curve conventional spacetime?

    iv. If the wave associated with a particle is actually evanescent, what is producing the resistance of spacetime that results in the decrease of a wave's amplitude with increasing distance from the center of 'waving'?

    Mon, May 2, 2011  Permanent link

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    Mycologist Paul Stamets studies mycelium and lists 6 ways that this astonishing fungus can help save the world. Cleaning polluted soil, creating new insecticides, treating smallpox and maybe even the flu … in 18 minutes, he doesn’t get all the way through his list, but he has plenty of time to blow your mind. An audience favorite at TED

    Watch Paul Stamets’ talk on

    I love a challenge, and saving the earth is probably a good one. We all know the earth is in trouble. We have now entered in the 6X — The sixth major extinction on this planet. I often wondered if there was a United Organization of Organisms — otherwise known as U-O (pronounces it “uh-oh”), (laughter) — and every organism had a right to vote, would we be voted on the planet or off the planet? I think that vote is occurring right now.

    I want to present to you a suite of 6 mycological solutions using fungi, and these solutions are based on mycelium.

    (graphic of Earth from space, growing a halo of mycelium; then photo of someone holding up a strand of mycelium pulled from the soil; then photo of mycelium growing on wood)

    The mycelium infuses all landscapes, it holds soils together, it’s extremely tenacious — this holds up to 30 thousand times its mass. They’re the grand molecular disassemblers of nature, the soil magicians. They generate the humus soils across the land masses of Earth. We have now discovered that there is a multi-directional transfer of nutrients between plants, mitigated by the mycelium –

    (drawing of trees with soil cross section, showing mycelium connections)

    so the mycelium is the mother that is giving nutrients from alder and birch trees, to hemlocks, cedars, and Douglas firs.

    (photo of Dusty Yao walking through northwestern rainforest)

    Dusty and I, we like to say, on Sunday this is where we go to church. I’m in love with the old growth forest, and I’m a patriotic American because we have those.

    (photo of giant mushroom silhouetted against the sky)

    Most of you are familiar with portobello mushrooms. And frankly, I face a big obstacle when I mention mushrooms to somebody. They immediately think portobellos or magic mushrooms, their eyes glaze over, and they think I’m a little crazy. So I hope to pierce that prejudice forever with this group. We call it mycophobia, the irrational fear of the unknown when it comes to fungi.

    (series of shots of mushrooms growing on a hunk of organic medium)

    Mushrooms are very fast in their growth. (series of cuts illustrating speed of growth, ending with shot of mature mushrooms) Day 21, day 23, day 25.

    Mushrooms produce strong antibiotics.

    (shot of big mushrooms rotting in the wild)

    In fact, we’re more closely related to fungi than we are to any other kingdom. A group of 20 eukaryotic microbiologists published a paper two years ago erecting Opisthokonta — a super-kingdom that joins Animalia and fungi together. We share in common the same pathogens. Fungi don’t like to rot from bacteria, and so our best antibiotics come from fungi. But here (refers back to photo) is a mushroom that’s past its prime. After they sporulate, they do rot. But I propose to you that the sequence of microbes that occur on rotting mushrooms are essential for the health of the forest. They give rise to the trees, they create the debris fields that fuel the mycelium.

    (photo of yellow mushroom on the floor of the forest, exuding spores)

    And so we see a mushroom here sporulating. And the spores are germinating,

    (photo of a patch of mycelium on the forest floor, dissolving into the undergrowth, with Stamets’ foot in photo to show scale)

    -and the mycelium forms and goes underground. In a single cubic inch of soil, there can be 8 miles of these cells. My foot is covering approximately 300 miles of mycelium.

    (microscopic movie of mycelium growing, branching out and thickening)

    This is photo-micrographs from Nick Read and Patrick Hickey. And notice that as the mycelium grows, it conquers territory, and then it begins the net.

    (final microscopic shot of fully netted mass of mycelia)

    I’ve been a scanning electron microscopist for many years, I’ve thousands of electron micrographs, and when I’m staring at the mycelium I realize that they are microfiltration membranes. We exhale carbon dioxide, so does mycelium. It inhales oxygen, just like we do. But these are essentially externalized stomachs and lungs. And I present to you a concept, that these are extended neurological membranes.

    (close up of one of the mycelium nets)

    And in these cavities, these microcavities form, and as they fuse soils, they absorb water. These are little wells. And inside these wells, then microbal communities begin to form. And so the spongy soil not only resists erosion, but sets up a microbial universe –

    (shot of starscape with mycelium superimposed on it — “The Opte Project”)

    -that gives rise to a plurality of other organisms.

    I first proposed, in the early 1990s, that mycelium is Earth’s natural internet. When you look at the mycelium, they’re highly branched. And if there’s one branch that is broken, then very quickly, because of the nodes of crossing — internet engineers maybe call them “hot points” — There’s alternative pathways for channeling nutrients and information. The mycelium is sentient. It knows that you are there. When you walk across landscapes, it leaps up in the aftermath of your footsteps trying to grab debris.

    So, I believe, the invention of the computer internet is an inevitable consequence of a previously proven biologically successful model. The earth invented the computer internet for its own benefit, and we, now, being the top organism on this planet, is trying to allocate resources in order to protect the biosphere.

    (article on dark matter with rendering of “Cobweb of dark matter”)

    Going way out, dark matter conforms to the same mycelial archetype. I believe matter begets life, life becomes single cells, single cells become strings, strings become chains, chains network. And this is the paradigm that we see throughout the universe.

    (photo of Earth from space)

    Most of you may not know that fungi were the first organisms to come to land. They came to land 1.3 billion years ago, and plants followed several hundred million years later. How is that possible?

    (electron micrograph of mycelium holding mineral crystals)

    It’s possible because the mycelium produces oxalic acids, and many other acids and enzymes, pockmarking rock and grabbing calcium and other minerals, and forming calcium oxalates. Makes the rocks crumble, and the first step in the generation of soil.

    (slide of chemical models of oxalic acid (C2H2O4; HOOCCOOH) and calcium oxalate (CaC2O4))

    Oxalic acid is two carbon dioxide molecules joined together. So fungi and mycelium sequester carbon dioxide in the form of calcium oxalates. And all sorts of other oxalates are also sequestering carbon dioxide through the minerals that are being formed and taken out of the rock matrix.

    (photo of geologist in the field, examining a large fossil of Prototaxites)

    This was first discovered in 1859, this is the photograph by Franz Hueber, this photograph’s taken 1950s in Saudi Arabia. 420 million years ago, this organism existed. It was called Prototaxites. Prototaxites, laying down, was about 3 feet tall. The tallest plants on Earth, at that time, were less than two feet. Dr. Boyce, at the University of Chicago, published an article in the Journal of Geology this past year determining that Prototaxites was a giant fungus. A giant mushroom.

    (Artist’s rendering of Devonian landscape with towering Prototaxites)

    Across the landscapes of Earth were dotted these giant mushrooms. All across most land masses. And these existed for tens of millions of years.

    Now we’ve had several extinction events, and as we march forward, 65 million years ago — most of you know about it — we had an asteroid impact. The earth was struck by an asteroid, a huge amount of debris was jettisoned into the atmosphere. Sunlight was cut off, and fungi inherited the earth.

    Those organisms that paired with fungi were rewarded, ’cause fungi do not need light. More recently, at Einstein University, they just determined that fungi use radiation as a source of energy, much like plants use light. So the prospect of fungi existing on other planets elsewhere, I think, is a foregone conclusion. At least in my own mind.

    (satellite photo of the Pacific Northwest)

    The largest organism in the world is in eastern Oregon. I couldn’t miss it, it was 22 hundred acres in size. 22 hundred acres in size, 2,000 years old.

    (overhead shot of forest landscape in eastern Oregon)

    The largest organism on the planet is a mycelial mat, one cell wall thick. How is it that this organism can be so large, and yet be one cell wall thick, whereas we have 5 or 6 skin layers that protect us?

    (electron micrograph of mycelium mass)

    The mycelium, in the right conditions, produces a mushroom,

    (photo of mushroom poking through a parking lot)

    – it bursts through with such ferocity it can break asphalt.

    We were involved with several experiments. I’m going to show you 6, if I can, solutions for helping to save the world.

    (photo of scientists working on experiment described below)

    Battelle Laboratories and I joined up, in Bellingham, Washington, there were 4 piles saturated with diesel and other petroleum waste. One was a control pile, one pile was treated with enzymes, one pile was treated with a bacteria, and our pile we inoculated with mushroom mycelium.

    (photo of oil getting captured by mycelium ring)

    The mycelium absorbs the oil. The mycelium is producing enzymes — peroxydases — that break carbon-hydrogen bonds. These’re the same bonds that hold hydrocarbons together. So the mycelium become saturated with the oil, and then, when we returned 6 weeks later, all the tarps were removed, all the other piles were dead, dark, and stinky. We came back to our pile, it was covered with hundreds of pounds of oyster mushrooms –

    (photo of their pile, covered in mushrooms)

    – and the color changed to a light form. The enzymes re-manufactured the hydrocarbons into carbohydrates — fungal sugars.

    (photo of giant & healthy mushroom on the pile)

    Some of these mushrooms are very happy mushrooms. They’re very large. They’re showing how much nutrition that they could’ve obtained.

    But something else happened, which was an epiphany in my life. They sporulated, the spores attract insects, the insects laid eggs, eggs became larvae. Birds then came, bringing in seeds, and our pile became an oasis of life.

    (shot of their pile with grass growing on it)

    Whereas the other 3 piles were dead, dark, and stinky, and the PAH’s — the aromatic hydrocarbons — went from 10 thousand parts per million to less than 200 in 8 weeks. The last image we don’t have — the entire pile was a green berm of life. These are gateway species. Vanguard species that open the door for other biological communities.

    (photo of man holding burlap sack full of mycelium)

    So I invented burlap sacks — “bunker spawn” — and putting the mycelium, using storm blown debris,

    (diagram of how to bury sacks for waste cleanup)

    – you can take these burlap sacks and put ‘em downstream from a farm that’s producing E. coli, or other wastes, or a factory with chemical toxins, and it leads to habitat restoration.

    (photo of woman and other workers laying down burlap sacks in a field)

    So we set up a site in Mason County, Washington, and we’ve seen a dramatic decrease in the amount of coliforms, and I’ll show you a graph here-

    (somewhat illegible graph showing results described below)

    -this is a logarithmic scale, 10 to the 8th power, there’s more than a 100 million colonies per gram, and 10 to 3rd power is about a thousand. In 48 hours to 72 hours, these 3 mushroom species reduced the amount of coliform bacteria 10,000 times. Think of the implications. This is a space conservative method that uses storm debris — and we can be guaranteed that we will have storms every year.

    (Dusty Yao, posing with mushroom)

    So this one mushroom, in particular, has drawn our interest over time. This is my wife Dusty with a mushroom called Fomitopsis officinalis — Agaricon. It’s a mushroom exclusive to the old growth forest, that Dioscorides first described in 65 A.D. as a treatment against consumption. This mushroom grows in Washington state, Oregon, northern California, British Columbia, now thought to be extinct in Europe. May not seem that large — let’s get closer.

    (Stamets holding Agaricon, it’s as large as his torso)

    This is extremely rare fungus. Our team, and we have a team of experts that go out — We went out 20 times in the old growth forest last year, we found one sample to be able to get into culture.

    Preserving the genome of these fungi in the old growth forest, I think, is absolutely critical for human health.

    (series of micrographs of mushroom spores)

    I’ve been involved with the U.S. Defense Department BioShield program. We submitted over 300 samples of mushrooms that were boiled in hot water, and mycelium harvesting is (sic) extracellular metabolites — And a few years ago, we received these results.

    (table showing activity of mushroom strains against pox virus)

    We have three different strains of Agaricon mushrooms that were highly active against pox viruses. Dr. Earl Kern, who’s a smallpox expert of the U.S. Defense Department, states that any compounds that have a Selectivity Index of 2 or more are active, 10 or greater is considered to be very active. Our mushroom strains were in the highly active range. There’s a vetted press release that you can read — it’s vetted by DOD, if you Google “Stamets” and “smallpox” — or you can go to and listen to a live interview.

    So, encouraged by this, naturally we went to flu viruses.

    (table of “Highly Active Mushroom Strains Against Flu Viruses” showing reactivity of various species)

    And so, for the first time I am showing this. We have 3 different strains of Agaricon mushrooms highly active against flu viruses. Here’s the Selectivity Index numbers — against pox, you saw 10s and 20s — now against flu viruses, compared to the ribavirin controls, we have an extraordinarily high activity. And we’re using a natural extract within the same dosage window as a pure pharmaceutical. We tried it against flu A viruses — H1N1, H3N2 — as well as flu B viruses. So then we tried a blend, and in a blend combination we tried it against H5N1, and we got greater than a thousand Selectivity Index. (applause) I then — I then think that we can make the argument that we should save the old growth forest as a matter of national defense. (applause)

    (photo of array of Petri dishes containing spores)

    I became interested in entomopathogenic fungi — Fungi that kill insects. Our house is being destroyed by carpenter ants. I went to the EPA homepage, and they were recommending studies with metarhizium species of a group of fungi that kill carpenter ants, as well as termites. I did something that nobody else had done. I actually chase the mycelium when it stopped producing spores. These are spores — this is in their spores. I was able to morph the culture into a non-sporulating form.

    (two Petri dishes with new cultures)

    And so the industry has spent over a 100 million dollars specifically on bait stations to prevent termites from eating your house. But the insects aren’t stupid, and they would avoid the spores when they came close, and so I morphed the cultures into a non-sporulating form –

    (photo of dish sitting beside a wall, holding new mushroom culture)

    – and I got my daughter’s Barbie doll dish, I put it right where a bunch of carpenter ants were making debris fields, every day, in my house,

    (photo of ants devouring mycelium)

    — and the ants were attracted to the mycelium, because there’s no spores. They gave it to the queen. One week later, I had no sawdust piles whatsoever.

    And then, a delicate dance between dinner and death –

    (dead ant covered in mycelium)

    – the mycelium is consumed by the ants, they become mummified, and boing –

    (ant with a mushroom growing out of it)

    – a mushroom pops out of their head. (laughter and moans of disgust) Now after sporulation, the spores repel. So the house is no longer suitable for invasion. So you have a near-permanent solution for re-invasion of termites.

    (shot of exterior of house w/ construction equipment, followed by shot of patent form)

    And so my house came down, I received my first patent against carpenter ants, termites, and fire ants,

    (photo of more Petri dishes and spore prints, followed by another patent form)

    -then we tried extracts, and lo and behold, we can steer insects to different directions. This has huge implications. I then received my second patent — and this is a big one. It’s been called an “Alexander Graham Bell” patent — It covers over 200 thousand species.

    This is the most disruptive technology, I’ve been told by executives of the pesticide industry, that they have ever witnessed. This could totally revamp the pesticide industries throughout the world. You could fly a hundred PhD students under the umbrella of this concept, because my supposition is that entomopathogenic fungi, prior to sporulation, attract the very insects that are otherwise repelled by those spores.

    (photo of “Life Box,” “The Way to Re-Green the Planet”, then photo of someone opening one)

    And so I came up with a Life Box. ‘Cause I needed a delivery system. The Life Box — you’re gonna be getting a DVD of the TED conference,

    (photo of empty cardboard box in a dish being sprinkled with soil, then being watered, finally shot of spores growing on cardboard)

    – you add soil, you add water, you have mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi as well as spores, like of the Agaricon mushroom. The seeds, then, are mothered by this mycelium.

    (photo of mycelium rich soil in box with trees sprouting in it)

    And then you put tree seeds in here, and then you end up growing — potentially — an old growth forest from a cardboard box.

    (photo of path in a forest)

    I want to re-invent the delivery system, and the use of cardboard around the world, so they become ecological footprints. If there’s a YouTube-like site that you could put up, you could make an interactive Zip Code specific — where people could join together, and through satellite imaging systems, through Virtual Earth or Google Earth, you could confirm carbon credits are being sequestered by the trees that are coming through Life Boxes.

    (shot of UPS guy handing a box of shoes to girl)

    You could take a cardboard box delivering shoes, you could add water — I developed this for the refugee community –

    (shot of someone watering soil filled box, which then fills with plants)

    corns beans and squash and onions — I took several containers, my wife said if I could do this, anybody could.

    (shot of back porch garden, before and after planting)

    And I ended up growing a seed garden. Then you harvest the seeds — and thank you, Eric Rasmussen, for your help on this –

    (graphic — “Harvesting the seed garden” — photo of two girls harvesting garden — “Time from germination to seed harvest: approximately 4-5 months”, then photo of Dusty Yao harvesting the corn)

    And then you’re harvesting the seed garden,

    (photo of kernels encased in mycelium, about to be wrapped around cobs)

    Then you can harvest the kernels, and then you just need a few kernels, I add mycelium to it,

    (photo of wrapped/inoculated cobs, one side beginning to grow mushrooms, the other side starting off empty)

    and then I inoculate the corn cobs. Now, three corn cobs, no other grain — lots of mushrooms begin to form — too many withdrawals from the carbon bank. And so, this population will be shut down. But watch what happens here.

    (points to formerly empty side — series of shots showing the mushrooms growing on the cobs)

    The mushrooms then are harvested — but, very importantly — the mycelium has converted the cellulose into fungal sugars. And so I thought, how could we address the energy crisis in this country? And we came up with Econol.

    (photo of vial of “Econol” with burning wick)

    Generating ethanol from cellulose using mycelium as an intermediary — and you gain all the benefits that I’ve described to you already. But to go from cellulose to ethanol is ecologically unintelligent, and I think that we need to be econologically intelligent about the generation of fuels so we build the carbon banks on the planet, renew the soils — these are a species that we need to join with. I think engaging mycelium can help save the world. Thank you very much.
    Sun, May 1, 2011  Permanent link

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    the ethics of exploration ::
    Science Fiction Meets Science Fact

    This is a part of a debate organised by NASA. Science Fiction Meets Science Fact. ‘
    What are the real possibilities, as well as the potential ramifications, of transforming Mars?’ Terraform debaters, Greg Bear , author of such books as “Moving Mars” and “Darwin’s Radio.”; David Grinspoon , planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute; James Kasting , geoscientist at Pennsylvania State University; Christopher McKay , planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center.; Lisa Pratt , biogeochemist at Indiana University; Kim Stanley Robinson , author of the “Mars Trilogy” (“Red Mars,” “Green Mars” and “Blue Mars“); John Rummel , planetary protection officer for NASA; moderator Donna Shirley , former manager of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    Donna Shirley: Greg, what are the ethics of exploring Mars?

    Greg Bear: You usually talk about ethics within your own social group. And if you define someone as being outside your social group, they’re also outside your ethical system, and that’s what’s caused so much trauma, as we seem to be unable to recognize people who look an awful lot like us as being human beings.

    When we go to Mars, we’re actually dealing with a problem that’s outside the realm of ethics and more in the realm of enlightened self-interest. We have a number of reasons for preserving Mars as it is. If there’s life there, it’s evolved over the last several billion years, it’s got incredible solutions to incredible problems. If we just go there and willy-nilly ramp it up or tamp it down or try to remold it somehow, we’re going to lose that information. So that’s not to our best interest.

    We were talking earlier about having a pharmaceutical expedition to Mars, not just that but a chemical expedition to Mars, people coming and looking for solutions to incredible problems that could occur here on Earth and finding them on Mars. That could generate income unforeseen.
    If we talk about ethical issues on a larger scale of how are other beings in the universe going to regard how we treat Mars, that’s a question for Arthur C. Clarke to answer, I think. That’s been more his purview: the large, sometimes sympathetic eye staring at us and judging what we do.

    We really have to look within our own goals and our own heart here. And that means we have to stick within our social group, which at this point includes the entire planet. If we decide that Mars is, in a sense, a fellow being, that the life on Mars, if we discover them – and I think that we will discover that Mars is alive – is worthy of protection, then we have to deal with our own variations in ethical judgment.

    “I’ve heard a lot of people say, ‘Why should we go to Mars, because look at what human beings have done to Earth.’” -David Grinspoon

    The question is, if it’s an economic reality that Mars is extraordinarily valuable, will we do what we did in North America and Africa and South America and just go there and wreak havoc? And we have to control our baser interests, which is, as many of us have found out recently, very hard to do in this country. So we have a lot of problems to deal with here, internal problems. Because not everyone will agree on an ethical decision and that’s the real problem with making ethical decisions.

    Donna Shirley: David, you want to comment on the ethics of terraforming Mars?

    David Grinspoon: Well, one comment I’ve heard about recently, partly in response to the fact that the president has recently proposed new human missions to Mars – of course, that’s not terraforming, but it is human activities on Mars – and I’ve heard a lot of people say, “Why should we go to Mars, because look at what human beings have done to Earth. Look at how badly we’re screwing it up. Look at the human role on Earth. Why should we take our presence and go screw up other places?”

    It’s an interesting question, and it causes me to think about the ethics of the human role elsewhere. What are we doing in the solar system, what should we be doing? But, it’s very hard for me to give up on the idea. Maybe because I read too much science fiction when I was a kid, I do have, I have to admit, this utopian view of a long-term human future in space. I think that if we find life on Mars, the ethical question’s going to be much more complicated.
    But in my view, I think we’re going to find that Mars does not have life. We may have fossils there. I think it’s the best place in the solar system to find fossils. Of course, I could be wrong about this and I’d love to be wrong about it, and that’s why we need to explore. If the methane observation is borne out, it would be, to me, the first sign that I really have to rethink this, that maybe there is something living there under the ice.

    “If the methane observation is borne out, maybe there is something living there under the ice.” -David Grinspoon

    But let’s assume for a second that Mars really is dead, and we’ve explored Mars very carefully – and this is not a determination we’ll be able to make without a lot more exploration – but assuming it was, then what about this question. Should human beings go to Mars, because do we deserve to, given what we’ve done to Earth? And to me, the analogy is of a vacant lot versus planting a garden. If Mars is really dead, then to me it’s like a vacant lot, where we have the opportunity to plant a garden. I think, in the long run, that we should.

    We’ve heard a lot different possible motivations, economic motivations, or curiosity, but I think ultimately the motivation should be out of love for life, and wanting there to be more life where there’s only death and desolation. And so I think that ethically, in the long run, if we really learn enough to say that Mars is dead, then the ethical imperative is to spread life and bring a dead world to life.

    Donna Shirley: Jim, we can’t prove a negative, so how do we know if there’s life or not, if we keep looking and looking and looking. How long should we look? How would we make that decision?

    James Kasting: I think Lisa put us on the right track initially. She’s studying subsurface life on Earth. If there’s life on Mars today, it’s subsurface. I think it’s deep subsurface, a kilometer or two down. So I think we do need humans on Mars, because we need them up there building big drilling rigs to drill down kilometers depth and do the type of exploration that Lisa and her group is doing on Earth here. I think that’s going to take not just decades, but probably a couple of centuries before we can really get a good feel for that.

    Donna Shirley: Well, I know, John, at Lake Vostok, one of the big issues is, if we drill into it, our dirty drilling rigs are going to contaminate whatever’s down there. So how do we drill without worrying about contaminating something if it is there?

    John Rummel: Well, you accept a little contamination probabilistically that you can allow operations and still try to prevent it. I mean, basically what we can do is try to prevent that which we don’t want to have happen. We can’t ever have a guarantee. The easiest way to prevent the contamination of Mars is to stay here in this room. Or someplace close by.
    Greg Bear: That’s known as abstinence.

    John Rummel: [laughs]. I also want to point out it’s not necessarily the case that the first thing you want to do on Mars, even if there’s no life, is to change it. We don’t know the advantages of the martian environment. It’s a little bit like the people who go to Arizona for their allergies and start planting crabgrass right off. They wonder why they get that. And it may be that Mars as it is has many benefits. I started working here at NASA Ames as a postdoc with Bob McElroy on controlled ecological life-support systems. There’s a lot we can do with martian environments inside before we move out to the environment of Mars and try to mess with it. So I would highly recommend that not only do we do a thorough job with robotic spacecraft on Mars, but we do a thorough job living inside and trying to figure out what kind of a puzzle Mars presents.

    Donna Shirley: Stan, you dealt with this issue in your book with the Reds versus the Greens. What are some of the ethics of making decisions about terraforming Mars?

    Kim Stanley Robinson: Ah, the Reds versus the Greens. This is a question in environmental ethics that has been completely obscured by this possibility of life on Mars.
    After the Viking mission, and for about a decade or so, up to the findings of the ALH meteorite, where suddenly martian bacteria were postulated again, we thought of Mars as being a dead rock. And yet there were still people who were very offended at the idea of us going there and changing it, even though it was nothing but rock. So this was an interesting kind of limit case in environmental ethics, because this sense of what has standing. People of a certain class had standing, then all the people had standing, then the higher mammals had standing – in each case it’s sort of an evolutionary process where, in an ethical sense, more and more parts of life had standing, and need consideration and ethical treatment from us. They aren’t just there to be used.
    When you get to rock, it seemed to me that there would be very few people (wanting to preserve it). And yet, when I talked about my project, when I was writing it, it was an instinctive thing, that Mars has its own, what environment ethicists would call, “intrinsic worth,” even as a rock. It’s a pretty interesting position. And I had some sympathy for it, because I like rocky places myself. If somebody proposed irrigating and putting forests in Death Valley, I would think of this as a travesty. I have many favorite rockscapes, and a lot of people do.

    So, back and forth between Red and Green, and one of the reasons I think that my book was so long was that it was just possible to imagine both sides of this argument for a very long time. And I never really did reconcile it in my own mind except that it seemed to me that Mars offered the solution itself. If you think of Mars as a dead rock and you think it has intrinsic worth, it should not be changed, then you look at the vertical scale of Mars and you think about terraforming, and there’s a 31-kilometer difference between the highest points on Mars and the lowest. I reckoned about 30 percent of the martian surface would stay well above an atmosphere that people could live in, in the lower elevations. So maybe you could have it both ways. I go back and forth on this teeter-totter. But of course now it’s a kind of an older teeter-totter because we have a different problem now.

    Link : AStrobio Image Gallery — Terraforming MArs

    Google Mars

    source : WeirdSciences

    Wed, Mar 2, 2011  Permanent link

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    “Your hearts know in silence the secrets
    of the days and nights;
    But your ears thirst for the sound of your hearts knowledge.
    You would know in words that which
    you have always known in thought.
    You would touch with your fingers the
    naked body of your dreams.”

    Khalil Gibran

    Tue, Feb 15, 2011  Permanent link

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    Using Special Crystals, Researchers Make a Paper Clip Invisible

    Metamaterials have long been thought the key to creating the working, visible spectrum “invisibility cloak” promised us by sci-fi, but it might be time for metamaterials to move over. Two independent labs—one at the University of Birmingham in the UK, the other at MIT—have used naturally forming calcite crystals to render visible objects (as in large enough to see with the naked eye) invisible, something metamaterials haven’t come close to doing.
    Metamaterials have achieved a measure of invisibility, but not in any practical sense; they can bend certain wavelengths of light to conceal an object at the microscopic level, but so far they have not been able to work well at the macro scale or in the visible spectrum. It turns out researchers may not have needed such an exotic medium.

    Calcite, an abundant crystalline form of calcium carbonate that forms naturally (it’s the primary stuff of sea shells), has long been known to have peculiar light-bending properties, and if the Birmingham and MIT findings are any indication it might have a future in cloaking devices.
    In both experiments, researchers had to finely tune their crystals—they’re technically composite crystals, as the researchers basically glue together two crystals with opposite crystal orientations—then placed them over small but entirely visible objects (MIT used a small metal wedge the size of a peppercorn; Birmingham went bigger, concealing a paperclip). In both experiments, the calcite crystals essentially reflected and refracted the light coming through in such a way as to conceal the objects on the other side, making it appear as though there weren’t there.

    For now, the technology is nascent and somewhat two-dimensional, though the MIT team says it has some ideas regarding how they could make the cloaking three-dimensional. And, at least theoretically speaking, the calcite cloaking technology is limited only by the size of calcite crystals, which can grow well more than a dozen feet long—large enough to conceal a person or an average New York City apartment.

    To think: all that work with metamaterials when all it really takes to make oneself invisible are some special crystals. Perhaps science fiction had invisibility right all along.

    Source : PopSci

    The Physics of Invisibility

    “When an electromagnetic wave is incident onto a conventional sphere, part of the radiation will be scattered in all directions; while for a metamaterial cloak, the incident wave will smoothly pass through the cloak undeflected,” Chen explained to “It is very interesting that a perfect metamaterial cloak shows no reflection or absorption but rather allows the Poynting power to bypass the hidden object. Our research also shows that the Poynting power inside of the cloak is not uniform: when close to the inner boundary of the cloak, the power flow density is close to zero, while near the outer boundary of the cloak, the power flow density becomes large.”

    Source : PhysOrg
    Wed, Feb 2, 2011  Permanent link

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    Recollections of the impact of the psychedelic revolution on the history of mathematics by Ralph Abraham, Ph.D.

    In these amazing papers published on MAPS, Abraham tells the stories of his " Trialogues " with Terence McKenna and Rupert Sheldrake and also his supposed revolutionary role in the psychedelic history of mathematics in the 1960s, and the origin of chaos theory.

    “This is a hyperdimensional space full of meaning and wisdom and beauty, which feels more real than ordinary reality, and to which we have returned many times over the years, for instruction and pleasure. In the course of the next twenty years there were various steps I took to explore the connection between mathematics and the logos. About the time that chaos theory was discovered by the scientific community, and the chaos revolution began in 1978, I apprenticed myself to a neurophysiologist and tried to construct brain models made out of the basic objects of chaos theory. I built a vibrating fluid machine to visualize vibrations in transparent media, because I felt on the basis of direct experience that the Hindu metaphor of vibrations was important and valuable. I felt that we could learn more about consciousness,communication, resonance, and the emergence of form and pattern in the physical, biological, social and intellectual worlds, through actually watching vibrations in transparent media ordinarily invisible, and making them visible.”

    link here

    Source: MAPS - vol. 18 # 1
    Tue, Jan 25, 2011  Permanent link

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    An ant colony is the last place you'd expect to find a maths whiz, but University of Sydney researchers have shown that the humble ant is capable of solving difficult mathematical problems.

    These findings, published in the Journal of Experimental Biology, deepen our understanding of how even simple animals can overcome complex and dynamic problems in nature, and will help computer scientists develop even better software to solve logistical problems and maximise efficiency in many human industries.

    Using a novel technique, Chris Reid and Associate Professor Madeleine Beekman from the School of Biological Sciences, working with Professor David Sumpter of Uppsala University, Sweden, tested whether Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) could solve a dynamic optimisation problem by converting the classic Towers of Hanoi maths puzzle into a maze.

    Finding the most efficient path through a busy network is a common challenge faced by delivery drivers, telephone routers and engineers. To solve these optimisation problems using software, computer scientists have often sought inspiration from ant colonies in nature - creating algorithms that simulate the behaviour of ants who find the most efficient routes from their nests to food sources by following each other's volatile pheromone trails. The most widely used of these ant-inspired algorithms is known as Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO).

    "Although inspired by nature, these computer algorithms often do not represent the real world because they are static and designed to solve a single, unchanging problem," says lead author Chris Reid, a doctoral student from the Behaviour and Genetics of Social Insects Laboratory.
    "But nature is full of unpredictability and one solution does not fit all. So we turned to ants to see how well their problem solving skills respond to change. Are they fixed to a single solution or can they adapt?"

    The researchers tested the ants using the three-rod, three-disk version of the Towers of Hanoi problem - a toy puzzle that requires players to move disks between rods while obeying certain rules and using the fewest possible moves. But since ants cannot move disks, the researchers converted the puzzle into a maze where the shortest path corresponds to the solution with fewest moves in the toy puzzle. The ants at the entry point of the maze could chose between 32,768 possible paths to get to the food source on the other side, with only two of the paths being the shortest path and thus the optimal solution.

    The ants were given one hour to solve the maze by creating a high traffic path between their nest and the food source, after which time the researchers blocked off paths and opened up new areas of the maze to test the ants' dynamic problem solving ability.
    After an hour, the ants solved the Towers of Hanoi by finding the shortest path around the edge of the maze. But when that path was blocked off, the ants responded first by curving their original path around the obstacle and establishing a longer, suboptimal, route. But after a further hour, the ants had successfully resolved the maze by abandoning their suboptimal route and establishing a path that traversed through the centre of the maze on the new optimal route.
    But not all the colonies' problem solving skills were equal: ants that were allowed to explore the maze without food for an hour prior to the test made fewer mistakes and were faster at resolving the maze compared to the ants that were naive. This result suggests that the "exploratory pheromone" laid down by ants searching a new territory is key in helping them adapt to changing conditions.

    "Even simple mass-recruiting ants have much more complex and labile problem solving skills than we ever thought. Contrary to previous belief, the pheromone system of ants does not mean they get stuck in a particular path and can't adapt. Having at least two separate pheromones gives them much more flexibility and helps them to find good solutions in a changing environment. Discovering how ants are able to solve dynamic problems can provide new inspiration for optimisation algorithms, which in turn can lead to better problem-solving software and hence more efficiency for human industries."

    Provided by University of Sydney
    (source :

    Sun, Jan 23, 2011  Permanent link

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