Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures

Might the repeated laboratory demonstration of purportedly non-local macro-level phenomena - including telepathy, remote-viewing, and precognition be understood as enabled by fundamental universal dynamics such as quantum entanglement or dark energy? Recently, six European and North American scholars gathered to investigate these questions. This is a report of their progress, and of future anticipated directions. Central concepts include the nature of space-time (and its possible extensions and hierarchizations), the extreme physics within quasars, the storage and retrieval of information at quantum levels, Cremona and Fourier transformations, the occurrence of holograms in nature and their function in information processing, and the fundamental nature of electromagnetism and gravity.

Here's an amazing article from

Journal of Cosmology, 2011, Vol 14.

JournalofCosmology.com, 2

Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures

Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures

Paul Bernstein, Ph.D1, Rudolph Schild, Ph.D2, Metod Saniga, RNDr3,

Petr Pracna RNDr4, Luboš Neslušan RNDr5 & Kala Perkins, MSci6

1Institute for the Study of Extraordinary Experiences, France and USA

2Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory, USA

3Academy of Sciences Astronomy Institute, Slovakia

4Heyrovsky Physical Chemistry Institute, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic

5Academy of Sciences Astronomy Institute, Slovakia

6Loyola Marymount University, USA

1. Introduction

Throughout the history of our civilization individuals have reported psychological phenomena that have defied understanding in terms of the dominant theory of our Newtonian universe. These experiences have been variously described using terms such as mysticism, magic, and spiritualism, all of which refer to an aspect of reality from which mainstream science distances itself. More recently some of these same so-called "psychic phenomena" have been categorized by terms such as "telepathy", "remote viewing" and "precognition and presentiment":

a. 'telepathy' - when one person's mind becomes aware of information that is purposefully being concentrated on within another person's mind at the same moment, while the two persons are separated into different rooms or by even greater distances.

b. 'remote viewing' - when one person's mind obtains significant amounts of accurate information about a location previously unknown to him or her, that also is too distant for the perceiver to see with their eyes, and furthermore is blocked from their eyes by many barriers including walls, buildings, mountains, etc.

c. 'precognition and presentiment' - when one person's mind (cognition) or body (sentiment; feeling) registers information accurately about an event before that event has taken place ('non-locality' across time).

Decades of direct experimentation on such phenomena through numerous controlled, laboratory trials seem to have confirmed the existence of some type of 'non-local' relationship across significant perceptual barriers or distances, and even across time (Bernstein 2005; Radin 1997).

Specifically, to study telepathy scientifically Duke University psychologist Prof. Joseph Rhine and his colleagues in the 1920s and 1930s conducted nearly one million laboratory trials during which a person would stare at 1 of 5 possible images, intending it to be 'communicated to' another person in a different room, while the second person would note down the image that appeared in his mind at that moment. Over 80% of those experiments produced statistically significant results, in which the image identified by the 'recipient' matched the image being stared at by the sender at frequencies greater than mere chance or coincidence (Rhine 1966). Similarly, also to study telepathy, in the 1980s and 1990s 422 separated individuals were tested in American and British laboratories, in experiments that instructed a person in one room to concentrate on a person she could see through a closed-circuit television screen who was sitting in another room – while the second person could never see or hear the first person. Precisely at the moments when the 'senders' were concentrating on the 'target-persons' seen on the closed-circuit TV, those target persons' physiology reacted, as measured by lie-detector-type electrodes attached to their skin, with an odds against chance of 1850 to 1 (Schlitz and Braude 1997). By comparison, the effect-size for new medicines to be officially declared effective in the United States is only one-eighth as great as the effect-size of these laboratory observations of telepathy (Radin 1997, p.154-155).

To scientifically test remote-viewing, the US Central Intelligence Agency hired the Stanford Research Institute in 1973, and during the next 15 years over 9700 experimental trials were conducted. The tested individuals correctly described distant locations previously unknown to them (assigned at random by the experimenters) with an accuracy of odds against chance at 100 billion to 1 (Puthoff 1996; May 1988).

Accurate awareness of the future ('presentiment' or 'precognition') - a non-locality of time - has been tested in the laboratory by Dutch professors Biermann and Scholte, and by American physicist Dean Radin. In their experiments, persons watch a computer screen on which is displayed a random series of photographs mixed from two distinct categories: either gentle scenes such as children playing or beautiful nature, or emotionally arousing photos showing wounded bodies or erotic scenes. The viewing persons' physiology is monitored, sometimes by lie-detector type electrodes on their skin and at other times by magnetic-resonance imaging to track their brain activity. Consistently, the viewers' bodies showed distinct reactions 4 seconds before the computers displayed the photos: their body and brain physiology stayed calm before a gentle photo was displayed, but showed excitation before an emotionally-arousing photo was displayed (Biermann & Radin 1997; Biermann & Scholte 2002). Likewise, 54 years of laboratory experiments assembled by Princeton researchers Charles Honorton and Diane Ferrari reporting on more than 50,000 individuals revealed that some persons can accurately predict an image or number before it is selected by a computer or person, to a degree significantly greater than chance (Honorton and Ferrari 1989).

Seeking explanations for such instances of non-local information coordination, some scientists propose the possibility that additional dimensions might underlie the complexities of our Universe. But string theories that have proposed other dimensions in detail seem so far not to explain the nature of these phenomena. On the other hand, the following three sets of published hypotheses by physical scientists may offer us useful starting points on a search for an appropriate theory.

2. Regarding "Telepathy" or "Distant Intention"

Stanford University Materials Engineering Professor William Tiller has suggested that a person's mind or body could be affected by the thoughts of another person far away through the following mechanisms (Tiller 1999, 2004):

a. Accepting Maxwell's original equations' inclusion of terms describing magnetic monopoles and the flow of such monopoles as a magnetic current taking place in at least some portion of space-time (Harmuth 1986; Barrett 1988; Seiberg & Witten 1994), Tiller proposes that human minds can, through concentration and meditation, move into a state of coherence greater than U(1) and approaching SU(2) gauge symmetry in which they can impress upon such magnetic currents the information content of their mental images. These information modulated magnetic currents then can radiate outwards at speeds faster than light (up to c2) , and can be sensed – and their content can be read – by other human minds.

b. Tiller envisions these magnetic currents as traveling in a particular region of space-time which includes the quantum vacuum (into which particles have empirically been observed to disappear and from which they have been observed to emerge).

c. And Tiller cites the laboratory measurements of humans radiating high electrostatic charge at will (Green 1991) as indicative of the possibility of such a 'broadcasting' telepathic mechanism.

3. Regarding "Remote Viewing" or "Clairvoyance"

To explain how a person might accurately perceive items and places hundreds of kilometers away, the team of Dr. Edgar Mitchell (Apollo 14 astronaut), computer scientist Peter Marcer, mathematical physicist Walter Schempp, and engineer Robert Staretz suggests the following (Mitchell 2000; Marcer & Mitchell 2001; Marcer 2004; Marcer & Schempp 1997 & 1998; Mitchell & Staretz, in press):

a. All objects in the Universe contain information at the quantum level regarding their current as well as their past states (their "event histories"), because waves impinging upon each object are partly absorbed, partly reflected, and partly de-flected, thus conveying outwards detailed indications about the structure and character of that object (much as macro-level radar and sonar operate, including "nature's own sonar" evolved by bats, dolphins, and whales).

b. Such specific alterations in the amplitude – and especially in the phase - of quantum-level waves returning from an object are already used routinely nowadays to extract detailed information from human tissues, through devices the public knows as "magnetic resonance imagers" (MRIs) (Schempp 1998 & Schempp 1992).

c. Mitchell's team proposes that the human mind can similarly compose meaningful images of even far-away objects by focusing its attention toward those distant locales, because when we "attend to" a specific object or location, we are actually – they propose – sending outwards a quantum wave which establishes a standing-wave interference pattern with quantum waves emitted by the distant object or location. Mitchell et al. call this the establishment of a "phase-conjugate adaptive resonance" with the object. And they cite as possible indications of such outward-going mental waves the telekinetic laboratory demonstrations of Schmidt, Jahn and Dunne (Schmidt 1970; Jahn & Dunne 1987; Princeton Engineering Anomalies 2007).

d. So long as that vibratory resonance is maintained, they argue, the individual's neural structures can apprehend holographic information about distant objects available through quantum entanglement. And this holographic information is converted by the brain through the known, neurological Discrete Fast Fourier Transform process (De Valois 1990; Pribram 1991 & Pribram 2004), into visual imagery and other conscious sensations.

4. Regarding "Precognition" or "Presentiment"

To explain how a person might accurately know an event before it takes place (without having prior information about the event) that is, how someone might experience temporal non-locality, physicists Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher and Russell Targ have offered the following (Rauscher & Targ 2001):

a. Extending relativity theory's Einstein-Minkowski 4-dimensional space-time into eight dimensions, they conceive of the four additional dimensions as counterparts, being three additional space dimensions and one additional time dimension.

b. Mathematically, the four new dimensions are designated by multiplying the original dimensions (x, y, z and t) by the square root of -1 (conventionally symbolized as the coefficient i).

c. This has the consequence that between any two points in the 8-dimensional universe there is always a path that has zero units of separation. (In near-layman's language, non-locality is thereby demonstrated to be true of time, not just of space.) Thus any two points in time can become adjacent; for instance, something that will happen in the future we can be aware of now (as the laboratory experiments on presentiment and precognition seem to confront us with [Biermann & Radin 1997; Biermann & Scholte 2002; Honorton & Ferrari 1989]).

d. Rauscher and Targ's eight-dimensional space-time metric does not violate any of the equations of Maxwell, Einstein, or Schrodinger. The "transactional" interpretation of quantum mechanics by John Cramer (Cramer 1986; Price 1996) might even require the kind of attention to connections between the 'future' and the present which Rauscher and Targ have explicated. Likewise, Polish theoretical physicist Bialynicki-Birula insists:

"The very structure of all quantum theories suggests…that two copies of spacetime, rather than one, are the proper arena for all quantum processes. … Every set of equations and formulae in quantum theory, from which all the transition amplitudes are determined, may always be written in two equivalent forms, differing by complex conjugation. We obtain one set from the other by reversing the sign of the imaginary unit i." (Bialynicki-Birula 1986).

So for physics' own needs, not just in response to the data on human precognition, there might be advantages to adopting 8-dimensional complex space-time into fundamental theory.

5. Two Portions of Space-Time?

Despite differences among the foregoing three sets of hypotheses, symposium participant Schild suggested that all three sets might reflect valid, though distinct, parts of the Universe's larger reality:

5.1. Specifically, William Tiller's "Reciprocal sub-space" (where magnetic currents might travel faster than the speed of light) could perhaps logically be well-described by taking the reciprocal of each of the conventional four dimensions, much as Rauscher and Targ have proposed for explaining precognition. And because the reciprocal of time t is 1/t, which in common physics we recognize as Frequency, Schild renames Tiller's "reciprocal subspace" as "Frequency sub-spacetime".

a. More fully, Schild represents conventional spacetime (which Tiller called "Direct" subspace) and Frequency sub-spacetime via the following mathematical expressions:

Conventional (or Direct) spacetime:

The line element describing any infinitesimal interval in conventional space-time has the minus sign before the spatial component, requiring all real solutions to be "time-like".

Frequency (or Reciprocal) sub-spacetime:

Here it is not yet clear if the algebraic sign should be positive, which creates solutions that can be any arbitrary form. Or should the sign possibly be negative, creating propagating waves for time-like solutions? Because he will be looking for solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations, and because non-propagating solutions will probably be needed to describe quantum wave-forms, Schild tentatively prefers the plus sign.

As these show, Schild emphasizes that Frequency sub-spacetime "is very restricted", i.e., confined to the counterparts of conventional spacetime's x, y, z and t dimensions. Note, however, that such a formulation does not require a further multitude of dimensions beyond the basic Einstein 4; instead it is similar to the Section 4 set of "imaginary" solutions.

b. Further, Schild asks – along with symposium participants Pracna and Bernstein – to what extent events within Frequency sub-spacetime might additionally be well-described by applying the projective algebraic-geometry Cremona transformation discoveries of symposium host Metod Saniga (Saniga 2000, 2002, 2004). Those transformations convert a point in conventional 3D-space into a line, and convert one moment in our conventional time dimension into a conic (parabola, hyperbola, or ellipse, etc) (Saniga 2001). In such "projective space", human experiences can be tracked and differentiated as intersections across those lines and conics, and as meaningful separations from those lines and conics (Saniga 2005).

c. This brought Bernstein to consider whether the transform mentioned by both Mitchell's team and Tiller - namely, the discrete fast Fourier transform that has been shown to play a concrete role in both the human brain's storage of perceived experiences (De Valois 1990; Pribram 1991 & Pribram 2004) and in the hologram's storage of quantum-level information (Mitchell & Staretz, in press) -might also describe the transitions to each other between conventional spacetime and Frequency sub-spacetime, through a complete set of Maxwell's equations. One is strongly led to this question because the transformation accomplished by the Fourier algorithm is exactly a conversion of ordinary spacetime's events into frequency data.

5.2 This brought the Symposium's members – at the invitation of physical-chemist Pracna – to consider what kind of BOUNDARY might exist between conventional spacetime and Frequency sub-spacetime, and to ask "What is the nature of that boundary?" and "Can we specify its behavior?"

a. One clue might be from Tiller's implication that it is across the sub-spacetime boundary that sub-atomic particles have been observed to 'disappear' into the 'quantum vacuum' (of which Tiller proposes Frequency ("reciprocal") sub-spacetime to be "the coarsest layer"). Perhaps this "disappearance" – to our instruments – occurs when particles' wave nature comes to predominate over their particle-nature? And vice-versa, when particles suddenly appear out of the vacuum, is it perhaps that their wave-nature (which Tiller says predominates in frequency-subspacetime) is becoming overpowered by their particle nature, and therefore we in conventional spacetime can suddenly perceive them? Is the quantum vacuum thus one empirical indication of the actual existence of Frequency sub-spacetime?

b. To what extent does the boundary behave like a 'membrane'?

c. Pracna put forth the idea of the relation between conventional spacetime and Frequency spacetime being encoded in the Cremona transformation (CrT). In this context the question emerges, "What is the relation between the CrT and the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT)?"

d. Pracna further asked Symposium attendees to consider:

i. Whether motion (velocity) might have its origin in an interplay between the conventional and Frequency spacetimes.

ii. A similar question could be asked for the velocity-acceleration relation.

iii. And might inertial mass have its origin in Frequency spacetime rather than in conventional spacetime?

e. Similarly, one asks whether the impedance observed at the boundary of the vacuum might be occurring because indeed there is a Frequency spacetime there which, as Tiller proposes, already contains a predominance of magnetic events, and those need to be 'pushed' or curved in order to accept any large electromagnetic input from conventional spacetime?

5.3 Further, can we say anything about the SHAPE of Frequency spacetime?

a. Initially, we were discussing it as if phenomena which first occurred in conventional spacetime would perhaps have to approach a fixed boundary, and then cross over that, in order to get into frequency spacetime:

Figure 1. A schematic representation of a boundary crossing, between conventional 4-D spacetime and frequency spacetime.

b. Subsequently, Pracna introduced a diagram which places conventional spacetime within a 'larger' field of Frequency spacetime which also expresses an implication that Frequency spacetime might be the more fundamental, and even in some sense the "pre-existing" or "sourcing" ground of, our conventional spacetime:

Figure 2. A schematic representation of conventional 4-D spacetime embedded within frequency spacetime.

This idea was related to the concept of open systems, in which the arrow of time emerges in irreversible processes along with a decrease of entropy, embedded in a larger closed system in which total entropy increases.

c. In subsequent discussions this concept was further refined to the Frequency spacetime existing as 'parallel' to conventional spacetime, the two being mutually interconnected by the discrete Fourier transform or by the Cremona transformation:

i. As Schild stated when he considers the historical development of our Universe: "the wave function gave rise to mass".

ii. Similarly, seminar participant Neslušan concludes from his elaboration of the Maxwell wave equations that, "Mathematically unifying the fundamental interactions of the Universe seems possible if we assume that at its deepest level the universe consists of elementary sources that generate waves."

iii. One is moved then to ask if creation/the Big Bang was itself perhaps a migration from Frequency spacetime (the "quantum vacuum") into conventional spacetime (the "Einsteinian physical universe") by vibrations (what Neslušan calls 'wavings') looping onto themselves, and thereby behaving as 'particles' (aptly named by Eddington as 'wavicles') which therefore retain wave properties in the by now well-known "wave-particle duality" so central to quantum physics' observations of matter at its most microcosmic level.

d. Recalling certain human experiences during which validated data were obtained from departed persons present in a seemingly nearby but not visible realm (Beischel 2007), Bernstein then inquired if conventional and frequency spacetimes might actually interleave one other, like the fingers of two hands, rather than one spacetime being simply surrounded by the other as in Fig. 2.

e. Schild agreed with such an "omni-presence" of frequency spacetime, but he strengthened the reasoning underlying such a model by recalling to us the postulate that had initially moved the Symposium into this exploration of two spacetimes; namely, that conventional and frequency spacetimes participate in a common set of eight dimensions. In Schild's words:

"What's necessary is to grasp the fact that every point in our conventional (x,y,z,t) spacetime has a superposition of four more dimensions in which quanta of something else (information) exist at all times."

Although picturing 8 dimensions on a piece of flat paper requires compromises, an illustration of one point with its 8 dimensions is offered below.

Figure 3. An illustration to show the x,y,z,t dimensions and the four accompanying frequency spacetime dimensions.

The solid-headed arrows represent the 4 conventional x,y,z and t dimensions, while the white-headed arrows represent the corresponding dimensions vx vy vz and vt in frequency spacetime. Thus, although there very likely may be a functional boundary for certain discrete events as their preponderance shifts from x,y,z, t into vx vy vz and vt , it could also be correct to say that the four dimensions representing Frequency spacetime are co-located with each point in conventional spacetime.

f. Pracna cautions that there may not be such a simple one-to-one correspondence of origin points in the two spacetimes as shown in Fig. 3. So he urges us to consider the revised diagram presented in Fig. 4.

Figure 4. Illustration of conventional and frequency spacetimes, permitting a possibly different nature of the time dimensions from the spatial dimensions, and emphasizing a transformative operation between the two spacetimes.

5.4 Exploring the Internal Nature of Frequency spacetime:

a. Tiller's writings emphasize that this other spacetime region is characterized much more by magnetic forces, and much less by electric events, than is conventional spacetime. He therefore offers the label "magneto-electrism" for that region's main force, to contrast with conventional spacetime's electro-magnetism, although he emphasizes that these two forces remain closely related to each other.

Likewise, Tiller suggests that the wave-particle duality observed in conventional spacetime is probably inverted in Frequency spacetime, in that wave-nature is much more present in that alternate spacetime than is particle-nature.

b. Schild proposes that waves in Frequency spacetime might be quadrupole, rather than dipole as they are presumed to be in conventional spacetime.

He also suggests that "dark energy" might be characteristic of Frequency spacetime, and that such energy might be increasing over time due to the growing number of living organisms in the Universe. He further notes that empirical observations already made of dark energy traveling faster than the speed of light (Salart 2008) accord with Tiller's view of Frequency space-time allowing for magnetic currents to travel at speeds up to c2.

c. Pracna proposes that time in conventional spacetime only emerges (i.e., can be measured, and can be used to relate accelerations to forces) because of the existence of bound systems, and that time might not exist as an independent fundamental property. It is the frequency (in other words, the periods) of internal motions (vibrations) of constituents in a bound system that defines the unit of time relevant for that system, and for that system's interactions with other bodies (again considered as bound systems) in conventional spacetime. Timescales shorter than the periods of internal motions of the bound system are meaningless to it, unless the constituents of the bound system have themselves an internal structure in which there are motions having even shorter periods (higher frequencies).

Each such bound system represents a special level of hierarchy in which certain physical properties emerge. For example, specific heat or conductivity are not properties of individual atoms, but only of atoms bound into a crystal lattice.

From this also follows the question, "What is the counterpart of such hierarchy in Frequency spacetime — not only in its 'frequency' (time) dimension but also in its 'spatial' dimensions?" Together with that, we may ask whether a fundamental property like inertial mass might not emerge at a deeper level of hierarchy, or in some so-far-unconceived hierarchy within Frequency spacetime.

d. This led Bernstein to suggest that such a possibility for time differences between conventional and frequency spacetimes might make possible the >c velocities of magnetic currents within Frequency spacetime that Tiller has derived.

e. Pracna notes, additionally, that rotational degrees-of-freedom of bound systems like molecules and their symmetry are qualitatively different from vibrational degrees-of-freedom and symmetry. Should rotational behavior demand our special attention here in light of Schild's observation of the centrality of spirals or coils as significant forms of energy propagation in living ("sentient") – and sometimes even crystalline – systems?

f. Neslušan proposes that at its most fundamental level, our Universe might be composed of certain 'waving' elements, which give rise to the waves and particles we observe in conventional spacetime once their amplitudes are at a sufficient level, but which are not always apparent to us because as they continually oscillate they also participate in Frequency spacetime. To describe them mathematically seems to require both the real and imaginary components of complex numbers.

6. Information Storage And Retrieval

In order to account for non-local perceptions - "remote viewing" accomplishments such as those relied upon by Soviet and American military 'psychic spy' programs (Puthoff 1996; May 1988) - Dr. Edgar Mitchell and his colleagues have published hypotheses (mentioned above in Section 3) regarding quantum-level storage and the wide accessibility of holographically-formatted information (Mitchell 2000; Marcer & Mitchell 2001; Marcer 2004; Marcer & Schempp 1997 & 1998; Mitchell & Staretz, in press).

Specifically, Mitchell and his colleagues hypothesize that all objects in our Universe retain evidence of each event that has occurred to them, recorded chiefly in their particle spin numbers and polarities. They further propose that this information is stored in a holographic form; that is, numerical values referring to the frequency, magnitude, phase, and orientation of the fringes of the wave-interference pattern which is formed when a coherent wave encounters the object and is partly absorbed, reflected and deflected by the object.

Being holographic, that "event history" is located partly everywhere in the Universe as standing waves, and so can be accessed by an appropriately-tuned "phase conjugate adaptive resonance" established by outgoing coherent waves produced by the human mind when it "attends to" or "focuses its attention towards" a particular object.

Mitchell and Staretz further note that quantum mechanics' original equations included terms which described such phase-modulated wave-conveyed information. But because those terms could increase towards infinity, quantum scientists eventually discarded them, agreeing to arbitrarily subtract infinity from infinity and to call that subtraction 're-normalization' of the equations. Mitchell and Staretz observe that although re-normalization does not cause major inaccuracies in QM equations for total energy , it does eliminate attention to the phase-variation of waves which would account for their enormous information carrying capability. Physics Nobel laureate Paul Dirac also critiqued renormalization with these words:

"Neglecting infinities … in an arbitrary way is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it is small —- not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it." (Kragh 1990).

Schild offers additional support to the potentially countably infinite capacity of our Universe to store such "quantum holograms", by turning our attention to the celestial objects often called "black holes": As is well-known, these are not actually empty "holes" but rather are super-dense, extremely-massive, collapsed, evolved stars and galaxy-center quasars. Because of their mass, their gravity is so great that Einsteinian-predicted time dilation and red-shift occur, to an extreme degree, making them behave from our perspective on Earth as, in Schild and Leiter's terms, "eternally collapsing objects" (Schild & Leiter 2010).

And because of that relativistically-continuous contraction and continuous acquisition of more mass, they can serve as "Nature's hard-drives", holding copies of the quantum holograms generated by each new moment of human experience, as well as by each new event which occurs to non-living objects.

Reinforcing the centrality of information for governing crucial processes that occur at the quantum and molecular levels, physical-chemist Pracna detailed to Symposium members the issues of genetic information storage in DNA, and its retrieval in the process of protein synthesis. He noted that the degeneracy of the genetic code, formally expressed by the language of group theory, closely follows the general symmetry of the standard model of elementary particles (Hornos 1993). Pracna points to the dynamics of proteins in living bodies as an example of extreme coherence occurring in objects which are 'macroscopic' with respect to objects at the quantum scale.

Neslušan focused intensively on a very fundamental level of both quantum and cosmic dynamics, exploring the relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces. His proposed model suggests important consequences for the behavior of objects within and beyond the generalized Schwarzschild radius, which implies an explanation for the shell-structure of atoms.

His treatment of Maxwell's and QM equations also suggests one possible origin for inertial force.

7. Some Additional Issues Opened For Future Investigation:

i. Might developments in projective, finite-ring, and other geometries be better able to express some key regularities concerning the phenomena examined during this Symposium than does Integral Calculus?

ii. Does perturbation of the quantum hologram occur? ( e.g., does the sharpness of its content deteriorate?).

iii. What is the attribute of mass that causes mass to curve conventional spacetime?

iv. If the wave associated with a particle is actually evanescent, what is producing the resistance of spacetime that results in the decrease of a wave's amplitude with increasing distance from the center of 'waving'?

Link

Here's an amazing article from

Journal of Cosmology, 2011, Vol 14.

JournalofCosmology.com, 2

Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures

Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures

Paul Bernstein, Ph.D1, Rudolph Schild, Ph.D2, Metod Saniga, RNDr3,

Petr Pracna RNDr4, Luboš Neslušan RNDr5 & Kala Perkins, MSci6

1Institute for the Study of Extraordinary Experiences, France and USA

2Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory, USA

3Academy of Sciences Astronomy Institute, Slovakia

4Heyrovsky Physical Chemistry Institute, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic

5Academy of Sciences Astronomy Institute, Slovakia

6Loyola Marymount University, USA

1. Introduction

Throughout the history of our civilization individuals have reported psychological phenomena that have defied understanding in terms of the dominant theory of our Newtonian universe. These experiences have been variously described using terms such as mysticism, magic, and spiritualism, all of which refer to an aspect of reality from which mainstream science distances itself. More recently some of these same so-called "psychic phenomena" have been categorized by terms such as "telepathy", "remote viewing" and "precognition and presentiment":

a. 'telepathy' - when one person's mind becomes aware of information that is purposefully being concentrated on within another person's mind at the same moment, while the two persons are separated into different rooms or by even greater distances.

b. 'remote viewing' - when one person's mind obtains significant amounts of accurate information about a location previously unknown to him or her, that also is too distant for the perceiver to see with their eyes, and furthermore is blocked from their eyes by many barriers including walls, buildings, mountains, etc.

c. 'precognition and presentiment' - when one person's mind (cognition) or body (sentiment; feeling) registers information accurately about an event before that event has taken place ('non-locality' across time).

Decades of direct experimentation on such phenomena through numerous controlled, laboratory trials seem to have confirmed the existence of some type of 'non-local' relationship across significant perceptual barriers or distances, and even across time (Bernstein 2005; Radin 1997).

Specifically, to study telepathy scientifically Duke University psychologist Prof. Joseph Rhine and his colleagues in the 1920s and 1930s conducted nearly one million laboratory trials during which a person would stare at 1 of 5 possible images, intending it to be 'communicated to' another person in a different room, while the second person would note down the image that appeared in his mind at that moment. Over 80% of those experiments produced statistically significant results, in which the image identified by the 'recipient' matched the image being stared at by the sender at frequencies greater than mere chance or coincidence (Rhine 1966). Similarly, also to study telepathy, in the 1980s and 1990s 422 separated individuals were tested in American and British laboratories, in experiments that instructed a person in one room to concentrate on a person she could see through a closed-circuit television screen who was sitting in another room – while the second person could never see or hear the first person. Precisely at the moments when the 'senders' were concentrating on the 'target-persons' seen on the closed-circuit TV, those target persons' physiology reacted, as measured by lie-detector-type electrodes attached to their skin, with an odds against chance of 1850 to 1 (Schlitz and Braude 1997). By comparison, the effect-size for new medicines to be officially declared effective in the United States is only one-eighth as great as the effect-size of these laboratory observations of telepathy (Radin 1997, p.154-155).

To scientifically test remote-viewing, the US Central Intelligence Agency hired the Stanford Research Institute in 1973, and during the next 15 years over 9700 experimental trials were conducted. The tested individuals correctly described distant locations previously unknown to them (assigned at random by the experimenters) with an accuracy of odds against chance at 100 billion to 1 (Puthoff 1996; May 1988).

Accurate awareness of the future ('presentiment' or 'precognition') - a non-locality of time - has been tested in the laboratory by Dutch professors Biermann and Scholte, and by American physicist Dean Radin. In their experiments, persons watch a computer screen on which is displayed a random series of photographs mixed from two distinct categories: either gentle scenes such as children playing or beautiful nature, or emotionally arousing photos showing wounded bodies or erotic scenes. The viewing persons' physiology is monitored, sometimes by lie-detector type electrodes on their skin and at other times by magnetic-resonance imaging to track their brain activity. Consistently, the viewers' bodies showed distinct reactions 4 seconds before the computers displayed the photos: their body and brain physiology stayed calm before a gentle photo was displayed, but showed excitation before an emotionally-arousing photo was displayed (Biermann & Radin 1997; Biermann & Scholte 2002). Likewise, 54 years of laboratory experiments assembled by Princeton researchers Charles Honorton and Diane Ferrari reporting on more than 50,000 individuals revealed that some persons can accurately predict an image or number before it is selected by a computer or person, to a degree significantly greater than chance (Honorton and Ferrari 1989).

Seeking explanations for such instances of non-local information coordination, some scientists propose the possibility that additional dimensions might underlie the complexities of our Universe. But string theories that have proposed other dimensions in detail seem so far not to explain the nature of these phenomena. On the other hand, the following three sets of published hypotheses by physical scientists may offer us useful starting points on a search for an appropriate theory.

2. Regarding "Telepathy" or "Distant Intention"

Stanford University Materials Engineering Professor William Tiller has suggested that a person's mind or body could be affected by the thoughts of another person far away through the following mechanisms (Tiller 1999, 2004):

a. Accepting Maxwell's original equations' inclusion of terms describing magnetic monopoles and the flow of such monopoles as a magnetic current taking place in at least some portion of space-time (Harmuth 1986; Barrett 1988; Seiberg & Witten 1994), Tiller proposes that human minds can, through concentration and meditation, move into a state of coherence greater than U(1) and approaching SU(2) gauge symmetry in which they can impress upon such magnetic currents the information content of their mental images. These information modulated magnetic currents then can radiate outwards at speeds faster than light (up to c2) , and can be sensed – and their content can be read – by other human minds.

b. Tiller envisions these magnetic currents as traveling in a particular region of space-time which includes the quantum vacuum (into which particles have empirically been observed to disappear and from which they have been observed to emerge).

c. And Tiller cites the laboratory measurements of humans radiating high electrostatic charge at will (Green 1991) as indicative of the possibility of such a 'broadcasting' telepathic mechanism.

3. Regarding "Remote Viewing" or "Clairvoyance"

To explain how a person might accurately perceive items and places hundreds of kilometers away, the team of Dr. Edgar Mitchell (Apollo 14 astronaut), computer scientist Peter Marcer, mathematical physicist Walter Schempp, and engineer Robert Staretz suggests the following (Mitchell 2000; Marcer & Mitchell 2001; Marcer 2004; Marcer & Schempp 1997 & 1998; Mitchell & Staretz, in press):

a. All objects in the Universe contain information at the quantum level regarding their current as well as their past states (their "event histories"), because waves impinging upon each object are partly absorbed, partly reflected, and partly de-flected, thus conveying outwards detailed indications about the structure and character of that object (much as macro-level radar and sonar operate, including "nature's own sonar" evolved by bats, dolphins, and whales).

b. Such specific alterations in the amplitude – and especially in the phase - of quantum-level waves returning from an object are already used routinely nowadays to extract detailed information from human tissues, through devices the public knows as "magnetic resonance imagers" (MRIs) (Schempp 1998 & Schempp 1992).

c. Mitchell's team proposes that the human mind can similarly compose meaningful images of even far-away objects by focusing its attention toward those distant locales, because when we "attend to" a specific object or location, we are actually – they propose – sending outwards a quantum wave which establishes a standing-wave interference pattern with quantum waves emitted by the distant object or location. Mitchell et al. call this the establishment of a "phase-conjugate adaptive resonance" with the object. And they cite as possible indications of such outward-going mental waves the telekinetic laboratory demonstrations of Schmidt, Jahn and Dunne (Schmidt 1970; Jahn & Dunne 1987; Princeton Engineering Anomalies 2007).

d. So long as that vibratory resonance is maintained, they argue, the individual's neural structures can apprehend holographic information about distant objects available through quantum entanglement. And this holographic information is converted by the brain through the known, neurological Discrete Fast Fourier Transform process (De Valois 1990; Pribram 1991 & Pribram 2004), into visual imagery and other conscious sensations.

4. Regarding "Precognition" or "Presentiment"

To explain how a person might accurately know an event before it takes place (without having prior information about the event) that is, how someone might experience temporal non-locality, physicists Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher and Russell Targ have offered the following (Rauscher & Targ 2001):

a. Extending relativity theory's Einstein-Minkowski 4-dimensional space-time into eight dimensions, they conceive of the four additional dimensions as counterparts, being three additional space dimensions and one additional time dimension.

b. Mathematically, the four new dimensions are designated by multiplying the original dimensions (x, y, z and t) by the square root of -1 (conventionally symbolized as the coefficient i).

c. This has the consequence that between any two points in the 8-dimensional universe there is always a path that has zero units of separation. (In near-layman's language, non-locality is thereby demonstrated to be true of time, not just of space.) Thus any two points in time can become adjacent; for instance, something that will happen in the future we can be aware of now (as the laboratory experiments on presentiment and precognition seem to confront us with [Biermann & Radin 1997; Biermann & Scholte 2002; Honorton & Ferrari 1989]).

d. Rauscher and Targ's eight-dimensional space-time metric does not violate any of the equations of Maxwell, Einstein, or Schrodinger. The "transactional" interpretation of quantum mechanics by John Cramer (Cramer 1986; Price 1996) might even require the kind of attention to connections between the 'future' and the present which Rauscher and Targ have explicated. Likewise, Polish theoretical physicist Bialynicki-Birula insists:

"The very structure of all quantum theories suggests…that two copies of spacetime, rather than one, are the proper arena for all quantum processes. … Every set of equations and formulae in quantum theory, from which all the transition amplitudes are determined, may always be written in two equivalent forms, differing by complex conjugation. We obtain one set from the other by reversing the sign of the imaginary unit i." (Bialynicki-Birula 1986).

So for physics' own needs, not just in response to the data on human precognition, there might be advantages to adopting 8-dimensional complex space-time into fundamental theory.

5. Two Portions of Space-Time?

Despite differences among the foregoing three sets of hypotheses, symposium participant Schild suggested that all three sets might reflect valid, though distinct, parts of the Universe's larger reality:

5.1. Specifically, William Tiller's "Reciprocal sub-space" (where magnetic currents might travel faster than the speed of light) could perhaps logically be well-described by taking the reciprocal of each of the conventional four dimensions, much as Rauscher and Targ have proposed for explaining precognition. And because the reciprocal of time t is 1/t, which in common physics we recognize as Frequency, Schild renames Tiller's "reciprocal subspace" as "Frequency sub-spacetime".

a. More fully, Schild represents conventional spacetime (which Tiller called "Direct" subspace) and Frequency sub-spacetime via the following mathematical expressions:

Conventional (or Direct) spacetime:

The line element describing any infinitesimal interval in conventional space-time has the minus sign before the spatial component, requiring all real solutions to be "time-like".

Frequency (or Reciprocal) sub-spacetime:

Here it is not yet clear if the algebraic sign should be positive, which creates solutions that can be any arbitrary form. Or should the sign possibly be negative, creating propagating waves for time-like solutions? Because he will be looking for solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations, and because non-propagating solutions will probably be needed to describe quantum wave-forms, Schild tentatively prefers the plus sign.

As these show, Schild emphasizes that Frequency sub-spacetime "is very restricted", i.e., confined to the counterparts of conventional spacetime's x, y, z and t dimensions. Note, however, that such a formulation does not require a further multitude of dimensions beyond the basic Einstein 4; instead it is similar to the Section 4 set of "imaginary" solutions.

b. Further, Schild asks – along with symposium participants Pracna and Bernstein – to what extent events within Frequency sub-spacetime might additionally be well-described by applying the projective algebraic-geometry Cremona transformation discoveries of symposium host Metod Saniga (Saniga 2000, 2002, 2004). Those transformations convert a point in conventional 3D-space into a line, and convert one moment in our conventional time dimension into a conic (parabola, hyperbola, or ellipse, etc) (Saniga 2001). In such "projective space", human experiences can be tracked and differentiated as intersections across those lines and conics, and as meaningful separations from those lines and conics (Saniga 2005).

c. This brought Bernstein to consider whether the transform mentioned by both Mitchell's team and Tiller - namely, the discrete fast Fourier transform that has been shown to play a concrete role in both the human brain's storage of perceived experiences (De Valois 1990; Pribram 1991 & Pribram 2004) and in the hologram's storage of quantum-level information (Mitchell & Staretz, in press) -might also describe the transitions to each other between conventional spacetime and Frequency sub-spacetime, through a complete set of Maxwell's equations. One is strongly led to this question because the transformation accomplished by the Fourier algorithm is exactly a conversion of ordinary spacetime's events into frequency data.

5.2 This brought the Symposium's members – at the invitation of physical-chemist Pracna – to consider what kind of BOUNDARY might exist between conventional spacetime and Frequency sub-spacetime, and to ask "What is the nature of that boundary?" and "Can we specify its behavior?"

a. One clue might be from Tiller's implication that it is across the sub-spacetime boundary that sub-atomic particles have been observed to 'disappear' into the 'quantum vacuum' (of which Tiller proposes Frequency ("reciprocal") sub-spacetime to be "the coarsest layer"). Perhaps this "disappearance" – to our instruments – occurs when particles' wave nature comes to predominate over their particle-nature? And vice-versa, when particles suddenly appear out of the vacuum, is it perhaps that their wave-nature (which Tiller says predominates in frequency-subspacetime) is becoming overpowered by their particle nature, and therefore we in conventional spacetime can suddenly perceive them? Is the quantum vacuum thus one empirical indication of the actual existence of Frequency sub-spacetime?

b. To what extent does the boundary behave like a 'membrane'?

c. Pracna put forth the idea of the relation between conventional spacetime and Frequency spacetime being encoded in the Cremona transformation (CrT). In this context the question emerges, "What is the relation between the CrT and the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT)?"

d. Pracna further asked Symposium attendees to consider:

i. Whether motion (velocity) might have its origin in an interplay between the conventional and Frequency spacetimes.

ii. A similar question could be asked for the velocity-acceleration relation.

iii. And might inertial mass have its origin in Frequency spacetime rather than in conventional spacetime?

e. Similarly, one asks whether the impedance observed at the boundary of the vacuum might be occurring because indeed there is a Frequency spacetime there which, as Tiller proposes, already contains a predominance of magnetic events, and those need to be 'pushed' or curved in order to accept any large electromagnetic input from conventional spacetime?

5.3 Further, can we say anything about the SHAPE of Frequency spacetime?

a. Initially, we were discussing it as if phenomena which first occurred in conventional spacetime would perhaps have to approach a fixed boundary, and then cross over that, in order to get into frequency spacetime:

Figure 1. A schematic representation of a boundary crossing, between conventional 4-D spacetime and frequency spacetime.

b. Subsequently, Pracna introduced a diagram which places conventional spacetime within a 'larger' field of Frequency spacetime which also expresses an implication that Frequency spacetime might be the more fundamental, and even in some sense the "pre-existing" or "sourcing" ground of, our conventional spacetime:

Figure 2. A schematic representation of conventional 4-D spacetime embedded within frequency spacetime.

This idea was related to the concept of open systems, in which the arrow of time emerges in irreversible processes along with a decrease of entropy, embedded in a larger closed system in which total entropy increases.

c. In subsequent discussions this concept was further refined to the Frequency spacetime existing as 'parallel' to conventional spacetime, the two being mutually interconnected by the discrete Fourier transform or by the Cremona transformation:

i. As Schild stated when he considers the historical development of our Universe: "the wave function gave rise to mass".

ii. Similarly, seminar participant Neslušan concludes from his elaboration of the Maxwell wave equations that, "Mathematically unifying the fundamental interactions of the Universe seems possible if we assume that at its deepest level the universe consists of elementary sources that generate waves."

iii. One is moved then to ask if creation/the Big Bang was itself perhaps a migration from Frequency spacetime (the "quantum vacuum") into conventional spacetime (the "Einsteinian physical universe") by vibrations (what Neslušan calls 'wavings') looping onto themselves, and thereby behaving as 'particles' (aptly named by Eddington as 'wavicles') which therefore retain wave properties in the by now well-known "wave-particle duality" so central to quantum physics' observations of matter at its most microcosmic level.

d. Recalling certain human experiences during which validated data were obtained from departed persons present in a seemingly nearby but not visible realm (Beischel 2007), Bernstein then inquired if conventional and frequency spacetimes might actually interleave one other, like the fingers of two hands, rather than one spacetime being simply surrounded by the other as in Fig. 2.

e. Schild agreed with such an "omni-presence" of frequency spacetime, but he strengthened the reasoning underlying such a model by recalling to us the postulate that had initially moved the Symposium into this exploration of two spacetimes; namely, that conventional and frequency spacetimes participate in a common set of eight dimensions. In Schild's words:

"What's necessary is to grasp the fact that every point in our conventional (x,y,z,t) spacetime has a superposition of four more dimensions in which quanta of something else (information) exist at all times."

Although picturing 8 dimensions on a piece of flat paper requires compromises, an illustration of one point with its 8 dimensions is offered below.

Figure 3. An illustration to show the x,y,z,t dimensions and the four accompanying frequency spacetime dimensions.

The solid-headed arrows represent the 4 conventional x,y,z and t dimensions, while the white-headed arrows represent the corresponding dimensions vx vy vz and vt in frequency spacetime. Thus, although there very likely may be a functional boundary for certain discrete events as their preponderance shifts from x,y,z, t into vx vy vz and vt , it could also be correct to say that the four dimensions representing Frequency spacetime are co-located with each point in conventional spacetime.

f. Pracna cautions that there may not be such a simple one-to-one correspondence of origin points in the two spacetimes as shown in Fig. 3. So he urges us to consider the revised diagram presented in Fig. 4.

Figure 4. Illustration of conventional and frequency spacetimes, permitting a possibly different nature of the time dimensions from the spatial dimensions, and emphasizing a transformative operation between the two spacetimes.

5.4 Exploring the Internal Nature of Frequency spacetime:

a. Tiller's writings emphasize that this other spacetime region is characterized much more by magnetic forces, and much less by electric events, than is conventional spacetime. He therefore offers the label "magneto-electrism" for that region's main force, to contrast with conventional spacetime's electro-magnetism, although he emphasizes that these two forces remain closely related to each other.

Likewise, Tiller suggests that the wave-particle duality observed in conventional spacetime is probably inverted in Frequency spacetime, in that wave-nature is much more present in that alternate spacetime than is particle-nature.

b. Schild proposes that waves in Frequency spacetime might be quadrupole, rather than dipole as they are presumed to be in conventional spacetime.

He also suggests that "dark energy" might be characteristic of Frequency spacetime, and that such energy might be increasing over time due to the growing number of living organisms in the Universe. He further notes that empirical observations already made of dark energy traveling faster than the speed of light (Salart 2008) accord with Tiller's view of Frequency space-time allowing for magnetic currents to travel at speeds up to c2.

c. Pracna proposes that time in conventional spacetime only emerges (i.e., can be measured, and can be used to relate accelerations to forces) because of the existence of bound systems, and that time might not exist as an independent fundamental property. It is the frequency (in other words, the periods) of internal motions (vibrations) of constituents in a bound system that defines the unit of time relevant for that system, and for that system's interactions with other bodies (again considered as bound systems) in conventional spacetime. Timescales shorter than the periods of internal motions of the bound system are meaningless to it, unless the constituents of the bound system have themselves an internal structure in which there are motions having even shorter periods (higher frequencies).

Each such bound system represents a special level of hierarchy in which certain physical properties emerge. For example, specific heat or conductivity are not properties of individual atoms, but only of atoms bound into a crystal lattice.

From this also follows the question, "What is the counterpart of such hierarchy in Frequency spacetime — not only in its 'frequency' (time) dimension but also in its 'spatial' dimensions?" Together with that, we may ask whether a fundamental property like inertial mass might not emerge at a deeper level of hierarchy, or in some so-far-unconceived hierarchy within Frequency spacetime.

d. This led Bernstein to suggest that such a possibility for time differences between conventional and frequency spacetimes might make possible the >c velocities of magnetic currents within Frequency spacetime that Tiller has derived.

e. Pracna notes, additionally, that rotational degrees-of-freedom of bound systems like molecules and their symmetry are qualitatively different from vibrational degrees-of-freedom and symmetry. Should rotational behavior demand our special attention here in light of Schild's observation of the centrality of spirals or coils as significant forms of energy propagation in living ("sentient") – and sometimes even crystalline – systems?

f. Neslušan proposes that at its most fundamental level, our Universe might be composed of certain 'waving' elements, which give rise to the waves and particles we observe in conventional spacetime once their amplitudes are at a sufficient level, but which are not always apparent to us because as they continually oscillate they also participate in Frequency spacetime. To describe them mathematically seems to require both the real and imaginary components of complex numbers.

6. Information Storage And Retrieval

In order to account for non-local perceptions - "remote viewing" accomplishments such as those relied upon by Soviet and American military 'psychic spy' programs (Puthoff 1996; May 1988) - Dr. Edgar Mitchell and his colleagues have published hypotheses (mentioned above in Section 3) regarding quantum-level storage and the wide accessibility of holographically-formatted information (Mitchell 2000; Marcer & Mitchell 2001; Marcer 2004; Marcer & Schempp 1997 & 1998; Mitchell & Staretz, in press).

Specifically, Mitchell and his colleagues hypothesize that all objects in our Universe retain evidence of each event that has occurred to them, recorded chiefly in their particle spin numbers and polarities. They further propose that this information is stored in a holographic form; that is, numerical values referring to the frequency, magnitude, phase, and orientation of the fringes of the wave-interference pattern which is formed when a coherent wave encounters the object and is partly absorbed, reflected and deflected by the object.

Being holographic, that "event history" is located partly everywhere in the Universe as standing waves, and so can be accessed by an appropriately-tuned "phase conjugate adaptive resonance" established by outgoing coherent waves produced by the human mind when it "attends to" or "focuses its attention towards" a particular object.

Mitchell and Staretz further note that quantum mechanics' original equations included terms which described such phase-modulated wave-conveyed information. But because those terms could increase towards infinity, quantum scientists eventually discarded them, agreeing to arbitrarily subtract infinity from infinity and to call that subtraction 're-normalization' of the equations. Mitchell and Staretz observe that although re-normalization does not cause major inaccuracies in QM equations for total energy , it does eliminate attention to the phase-variation of waves which would account for their enormous information carrying capability. Physics Nobel laureate Paul Dirac also critiqued renormalization with these words:

"Neglecting infinities … in an arbitrary way is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it is small —- not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it." (Kragh 1990).

Schild offers additional support to the potentially countably infinite capacity of our Universe to store such "quantum holograms", by turning our attention to the celestial objects often called "black holes": As is well-known, these are not actually empty "holes" but rather are super-dense, extremely-massive, collapsed, evolved stars and galaxy-center quasars. Because of their mass, their gravity is so great that Einsteinian-predicted time dilation and red-shift occur, to an extreme degree, making them behave from our perspective on Earth as, in Schild and Leiter's terms, "eternally collapsing objects" (Schild & Leiter 2010).

And because of that relativistically-continuous contraction and continuous acquisition of more mass, they can serve as "Nature's hard-drives", holding copies of the quantum holograms generated by each new moment of human experience, as well as by each new event which occurs to non-living objects.

Reinforcing the centrality of information for governing crucial processes that occur at the quantum and molecular levels, physical-chemist Pracna detailed to Symposium members the issues of genetic information storage in DNA, and its retrieval in the process of protein synthesis. He noted that the degeneracy of the genetic code, formally expressed by the language of group theory, closely follows the general symmetry of the standard model of elementary particles (Hornos 1993). Pracna points to the dynamics of proteins in living bodies as an example of extreme coherence occurring in objects which are 'macroscopic' with respect to objects at the quantum scale.

Neslušan focused intensively on a very fundamental level of both quantum and cosmic dynamics, exploring the relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational forces. His proposed model suggests important consequences for the behavior of objects within and beyond the generalized Schwarzschild radius, which implies an explanation for the shell-structure of atoms.

His treatment of Maxwell's and QM equations also suggests one possible origin for inertial force.

7. Some Additional Issues Opened For Future Investigation:

i. Might developments in projective, finite-ring, and other geometries be better able to express some key regularities concerning the phenomena examined during this Symposium than does Integral Calculus?

ii. Does perturbation of the quantum hologram occur? ( e.g., does the sharpness of its content deteriorate?).

iii. What is the attribute of mass that causes mass to curve conventional spacetime?

iv. If the wave associated with a particle is actually evanescent, what is producing the resistance of spacetime that results in the decrease of a wave's amplitude with increasing distance from the center of 'waving'?

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