Content & Form
Martin (M, 28)
Immortal since Dec 12, 2007
Uplinks: 0, Generation 2
Does Consciousness Depend...
From Ronald Frederick
dust on LA
Montevideo (part 9)
In a jam?
From Mariana Soffer
The Utopia Hypothesis
Of Onions and...
Experiment, never interpret.
It is possible that writing has an intrinsic relationship with lines of flight. To write is to trace lines of flight which are not imaginary, and which one is indeed forced to follow, because in reality writing involves us there, draws us in there. To write is to become, but has nothing to do with becoming a writer. That is to become something else.
Catharsis (Κάθαρσις) is a Greek word meaning "purification" or "cleansing" derived from the ancient Greek gerund καθαίρειν transliterated as kathairein "to purify, purge," and adjective katharos "pure or clean" (ancient and modern Greek: καθαρός).
Another meaning under the heading of 'purging' can concern body and soul — in it concerns efforts made to come to terms with guilt and sin, penance such as by chastisement (in modern use of that word, the meaning of punishment has taken over from the original sense of purification), such as practiced by flagellants; a testimony to the age of this use is the very name of the Cathars (a medieval sect).
In Mysticism, the end of human life and of philosophy is to realize the mystical return of the soul to God. Freeing itself from the sensuous world by katharsis, the purified human soul ascends by successive steps through the various degrees of the metaphysical order, until it unites itself in a clear and completely conscious contemplation to the One, and unifies into the state of ecstasis.
Thus in the neo-Platonism of Plotinus, the first step in the return of the soul to God is the act by which the soul, withdrawing from the world of sense by a process of purification (katharsis), frees itself from the trammels of matter. A point to note here is that psychology and philosophy were not separate in Classical Philosophy (Greek through Roman period). Thus in classical mysticism, as well as current mystical traditions, katharsis is a process leading to the transcending of psychological, as well as spiritual, traumas and negativities.
In early cults, the distinction between sacred and unclean is far from complete or well defined (see Taboo); consequently we find two types of cathartic sacrifice: one to cleanse of impurity and make fit for common use, another to rid of sanctity and in like manner render suitable for human use or intercourse.
- The most conspicuous example of the first class is the scapegoat. Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering. In like manner in the purification of lepers two birds were used; the throat of one was cut, the living bird dipped in the blood mingled with water and the leper sprinkled; then the bird was set free to carry away the leprosy. In both these rites we seem to have a duplication of ritual, and the parallelism of sacrifice and liberation is clear.
- As an example of the second class may be taken the sacrifice of the bull to the Rigvedic god Rudra. MM. Hubert and Mauss interpret this to mean that the sanctity of the remainder of the herd was concentrated on a single animal; the god, incarnate in the herd, was eliminated by the sacrifice, and the cattle saved from the dangers to which their association with the god exposed them. The Feast of First fruits is another example of the same sort; comparable with this concentration of holiness is the respect or veneration shown to a single animal as representative of its species (see animal worship). In both these cases the object of the rite is the elimination of impurity or of a source of danger. But the Nazarite was equally bound to lay aside his holiness before mixing with common folk and returning to ordinary life; this he did by a sacrifice, which, with the offering of his hair upon the altar, freed him from his vow and reduced him to the same level of sanctity as ordinary men.
From Ancient Greek κάθαρσις "cleansing," "purging" from καθαίρω "I cleanse"
1. (drama) A release of emotional tension after an overwhelming vicarious experience, resulting in the purging or purification of the emotions, as through watching a dramatic production (especially a tragedy). Coined in this sense by Aristotle.
Seeing the hero's catharsis helped her deal with the loss of her parents.
2. Any release of emotional tension to the same effect, more widely.
3. (psychology) A therapeutic technique to relieve tension.
4. (medicine) Purging of the digestive system.
Need for closure is a psychological term used to describe an individual’s desire for a quick answer as opposed to enduring ambiguity.
Need for closure scale
The need for closure varies across individuals, situations, and cultures. A person with a high need for closure prefers order and predictability and is decisive and close minded. This person also feels discomfort from ambiguity (Hiel & Mervielde 2003). Someone rating low on need for closure will express more ideational fluidity and emit more creative acts (Chirumbolo et al., 2004).
The Need for Closure Scale (NFCS) was developed by Arie Kruglanski, Donna Webster, and Adena Klem in 1993. Items on the scale include statements such as “I think that having clear rules and order at work is essential to success.” and “I do not like situations that are uncertain”. Items such as “Even after I’ve made up my mind about something, I am always eager to consider a different opinion.” and “I like to have friends who are unpredictable” are reversed scored (Kruglanski, Webster, and Klem, 1993). This scale is composed of 42 items and has been used in numerous research studies and has been translated into multiple languages.
The Need for Closure Scale exhibits low to moderate association with the following: “authoritarianism, intolerance of ambiguity, dogmatism, need for cognition, cognitive complexity, impulsivity, need for structure, and fear of invalidity, while retaining considerable distinctiveness from those various constructs”(Webster & Kruglanski, 1994). It does not appear to be related with the intelligence level nor social desirability concerns.
The term may also be applied to the supposed collective psyche of a society. It rose to worldwide prominence in this sense when calls to achieve 'closure' were used to curtail the process of recounting votes in the United States presidential election, 2000.
Whenever you find yourself on the side of majority, it's time to pause and reflect.
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