Essai d'une Distribution Genealogique des Sciences et des Arts Principaux
This graph represents a genealogical distribution of Knowledge based on the French Encyclopedie from 1780. Encyclopedie, ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers (that is, "Encyclopedia, or a systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts, and crafts") was an early encyclopedia, published in France beginning in 1751, with the goal of gather the whole of human knowledge to date. This massive effort took over 30 years and included a list of notable contributors from the French enlightenment, such as Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau. The work comprised 35 volumes, with 71,818 articles, and 3,129 illustrations. The first 28 volumes were published between 1751 and 1772 and were edited by Diderot.
Note: Although this was a major endeavor at the time, it's still worth mentioning, as means of comparison, that the French version of Wikipedia was indexing around 606.000 articles in January 2008.
Read more at VisualComplexity.com