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Vanessa Maynard (F, 34)
Immortal since Jan 9, 2008
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    Background: Voyager’s Interstellar record is a disk with encoded information that was attached to two space probes currently making their...

    The Voyager update project
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    Now playing SpaceCollective
    Where forward thinking terrestrials share ideas and information about the state of the species, their planet and the universe, living the lives of science fiction. Introduction
    Featuring Powers of Ten by Charles and Ray Eames, based on an idea by Kees Boeke.
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    Water Research: Chemical & Physical
    Project: The Voyager update project
    Chemical and Physical:

    - Consists of two Hydrogen atoms polar-covalently bonded to an Oxygen atom at 104.45 degrees.
    - Although Oxygen shares an electron with each Hydrogen atom, it shares unequally, hogging the electrons a higher percentage of the time. This gives the "top" Oxygen portion of the molecule a slightly negative charge, and the opposite "bottom" Hydrogen ends a slightly positive charge.
    - Because of water's polar nature, it is a great solvent, commonly referred to as the "universal solvent".
    - Things that dissolve well in water (salts, sugars, acids, etc...) are referred to as "hydrophilic". Conversely, fats and oils are "hydrophobic". Even the proteins and DNA inside of our bodies, are bathed in water.
    - In moderate amounts, water is tasteless and colorless. However, in larger quantities is does have a slightly blue tint.
    - Water has high adhesion and surface tension because it is polar, however, it also falls victim to capillary motion (when it is more attracted to another substance than itself). Capillary motion occurs when water moves from areas of wet soil to dry soil, creates a meniscus in a tube, or the dripping of tear fluid away from the tear duct.
    - Water's high specific heat capacity is a large reason that the temperature on Earth remains fairly constant.
    - Even given water's benign characteristics, some substances like lithium and potassium react violently with water.

    Water in the Cosmos:

    Here is a great breakdown from Wikipedia, "Water":

    Water vapor is on:
    • Mercury - 3.4% in the atmosphere
    • Venus - 0.002% in the atmosphere
    • Earth - trace in the atmosphere (varies with climate)
    • Mars - 0.03% in the atmosphere
    • Jupiter - 0.0004% in the atmosphere
    • Saturn - in ices only
    • Enceladus (moon of Saturn) - 91% in the atmosphere
    • exoplanets known as HD 189733 b[5] and HD 209458 b.[6]

    Liquid water is on:
    • Earth - 71% of surface
    Strong evidence suggests that liquid water is present just under the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus. Probably some liquid water is on Europa.

    Water ice is on:
    • Earth - mainly on ice sheets
    • polar ice caps on Mars
    • Titan
    • Europa
    • Enceladus

    How does water make it around the cosmos?
    - It is thought that when stars form they create a shock wave of gas and debris. This wave impacts the gases already present in the environment and the impact creates heat, under which water it produced.

    How do we detect water outside of Earth?
    - If you beam light at a far away planet's atmosphere, you can analyze the changes in the spectrum when it hits - different substances have different effects.

    Water on Earth:
    - 71% of Earth is water
    - 97.2% of Earth's water is located in the oceans
    - 90% of Earth's freshwater is locked in the Antarctic Ice Sheet
    - How "big" is all the water on Earth? Answer = 326,000,000 cubic miles
    - I'm pretty sure we all know about the water cycle, but here's a link just in casehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Water_cycle.png

    Some Interesting Water Properties:
    - Fog
    - Rainbows (refraction)
    - Tides
    - Ice is less dense that liquid water, so it floats. I think this is a funny fact because I like to image what all the beverage commercials would look like without the ice bubbling and floating refreshingly at the surface.

    Tue, Feb 5, 2008  Permanent link
    Categories: water, cosmos, vapor
    Sent to project: The Voyager update project
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